Purification and Prayers
Chapter 1 Times of Prayer (Salah)
It is obligatory to perform five prayers throughout the day and the night. These are:
The Noon Prayer (Dhuhr). (Four (4) rak^ahs): Its time begins when the sun has declined westward from the middle of the sky and remains until the length of the shadow of an object becomes equal to that of the object per se, in addition to the length of the shadow of that object when the sun was at its zenith.
The Mid-afternoon Prayer (^Asr). (Four (4) rak^ahs): Its time begins after Dhuhr ends, and remains until sunset.
The Sunset Prayer (Maghrib). (Three (3) rak^ahs): Its time begins after sunset, i.e., when ^Asr ends, and remains until the disappearance of the redness in the western horizon.
The Nightfall Prayer (^Isha’). (Four (4) rak^ahs): Its time begins when Maghrib time ends and remains until the appearance of the true dawn (Fajr Sadiq).
The Dawn Prayer (Subh). (Two (2) rak^ahs): Its time begins after ^Isha’ time and remains until sunrise (Shuruq).
These obligatory prayers must be performed in their due times by every Muslim who is pubescent, sane, and pure. Without an excuse, it is unlawful to perform these prayers ahead of their times or to delay performing these prayers until after their times have passed. If something prohibitive, such as menses, occurs after a time which was enough to perform the prayer, then one must make up that missed prayer. In the case of incontinence of urine, if the prohibitive thing occurs after a time which was enough to perform the prayer and its purification (taharah), then one must make up that missed prayer. If, on the other hand, the prohibitive thing terminates and time enough to say ‘Allahu akbar’ is left, then one must make up that prayer and the one before it if they are combinable; so if the prohibitive thing terminates before sunset while there is enough time to say ‘Allahu akbar’, then both ^Asr and Dhuhr must be prayed. If it terminates before Fajr begins while there is time enough to say ‘Allahu akbar’, then both ^Isha’ and Maghrib must be prayed.
Chapter 2 Obligations of the Guardians
It is obligatory upon the guardian of a child who reached the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz) to order him to perform prayer, to teach him the rules of prayer after he has completed seven lunar years, and to hit him for not performing prayer after ten lunar years of age. The same is done in the case of fasting–if the child can bear fasting. Moreover, the guardian must teach the child what is obligatory and what is unlawful of the basic beliefs and rules, the rewardability of the toothstick (siwak), and congregational prayers (jama^ah); and must order him accordingly. It is obligatory upon every Muslim to order his family to perform prayer. It is obligatory on the Muslim rulers to kill the person who out of laziness does not pray, if he does not repent; the judgement of such a person is that he is a Muslim. It is obligatory on every Muslim to order his family and everyone else he is able to order with prayers if they do not pray.
Chapter 3 Ablution (Wudu’)
Ablution (Wudu’) is one of the conditions of prayer.
Integrals of Ablution (Wudu’):
The integrals of ablution are six:
1. To have the intention of purification (taharah) for prayer–or any equivalent intention–when the water first touches the face, according to Imam ash-Shafi^iyy. However, according to Imam Malik, it is enough if the intention preceded washing the face by a short time;
2. To wash the whole face, from the normal hairline to the chin and from one ear to the other including the hair and skin, but not the inner part of the man’s beard when the hair therein is thick;
3. To wash the hands and the forearms up to and including the elbows and what is on them;4. To wet wipe the head or part of it–even if it is only one hair–within the boundary of the head;
5. To wash the feet with the ankles included, or else to wet wipe the footgear (khuff) when the conditions of the footgear are fulfilled;
6. To observe the aforementioned order
Invalidators of Ablution (Wudu’): Ablution is invalidated by:
1. The emission of anything from the eliminatory outlets, except maniyy;1
2. Touching the penis, vagina, or anus of a human with the inside part of the bare hand;
3. Touching the skin of the marriageable woman who attained to an age at which she is normally desired;
4. Losing consciousness, except if one is sleeping with his buttocks firmly seated.
Chapter 4 Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination (Istinja’)
Istinja’ is obligatory after the emission of any wet material from the eliminatory outlets, except maniyy. Istinja’ is performed with water by rinsing the soiled area until it becomes pure, or else one must wipe the soiled area thrice or more until the area is clean (although a trace that can only be removed with water may be left), with an uprooting, pure, solid, and unrespectable material such as a stone or paper. Istinja’ may be performed in this way even if water is present provided the wet filth (najasah) is not displaced or dried before cleaning it or else water must be used.
Chapter 5 The Purificatory Bath (Ghusl)
Among the conditions of prayer is purification from the state of major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) by performing the purificatory bath. Dry purification (tayammum) is performed when one cannot perform ghusl. One is required to perform the purificatory bath after any of these five things occur:
1. The emission of maniyy;
2. Sexual intercourse;
3. Termination of menses (hayd);
4. Termination of postpartum bleeding (nifas);
Integrals of the Purificatory Bath (Ghusl)
The integrals of the purificatory bath are two:
1. To have the intention to clear oneself of the state of major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) or a similar intention;
2. To wash the whole body with water, including the skin and the hair even if it is thick.
Chapter 6 Conditions of Purification (Taharah)
The conditions of purification (taharah) are:
1. To be Muslim;
2. To be at the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz);
3. To remove anything which prevents water from reaching the part to be washed;
4. To let the water flow on the part to be washed;
5. To use purifying water, i.e., water that has not changed by being mixed with a pure material, such as milk or ink, from which the water can be shielded. If the water changes because of its mixing with something in such a way that it is not called water anymore, then this water is not good for purification. However, if the water changes because of its mixing with things which are in its original place or its pathway or the like, and from which this water cannot be easily shielded, then this does not affect the purifying property of this water. Moreover, the water must not have changed because of its contact with a najas-filth even if the change was inappreciable. If the water was less than two qullahs,1 an unexempted najas-filth must not have contacted it even if it does not change the water, and it must not have been used already in clearing someone of a ritual impurity (hadath), and it must not have been used to remove a najas-filth.
Chapter 7 Dry Purification (Tayammum)
If one needs to pray but he is in a state of ritual impurity (hadath), and one cannot find water or would be harmed upon using it, one performs dry purification (tayammum). Tayammum is performed after the time of prayer sets in and after the unexempted najas-filth is removed. Tayammum is performed by using unmixed soil, which is purifying and dusty. One strikes the soil with the inside part of the hands and makes the intention of performing tayammum while transferring the dust of the soil from the ground until it is wiped on part of the face. One wipes the entire face and then strikes the soil a second time to wipe the hands and forearms.
Chapter 8 Prohibitions While in a State of Ritual Impurity (Hadath)
The one who invalidated his wudu’ is prohibited to perform prayer, circumambulate the Ka^bah, and to carry or touch the Book of the Qur’an (Mushaf). However, the child who has reached the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz) and is studying in the Book of the Qur’an is allowed to carry it and touch it without wudu’.
It is unlawful for the person who emitted maniyy (junub) to do the aforementioned, and also to recite the Qur’an, or stay in a mosque.
It is unlawful for the menstruating and postpartum-bleeding women to do all the aforementioned actions, to fast before the cessation of bleeding, and to allow the husband or the master to enjoy the area between their navel and knees before they have performed the purificatory bath (ghusl). Some scholars said anything other than sexual intercourse is allowed.
Chapter 9 Removing Najas-Filth
Among the conditions of prayer is to be clear of najas-filth in one’s body, clothes, place of prayer, and what one carries in prayer, such as a bottle carried in one’s pocket. If a najas-filth contacts one or what one carries, one’s prayer is invalidated unless the najas-filth is dry and one throws it away immediately, or it is an exempted najas-filth like the blood of one’s wound. One must remove an unexempted najas-filth with purifying water by removing the najas-filth and its properties, i.e., the taste, color, and odor.
The najas-filth without discernible characteristics (najasah hukmiyyah) is the najas-filth the color, taste, or odor of which cannot be detected, and it is removed by pouring water on it. The najas-filth of a dog or a pig is removed by washing the najas-filthy area seven times–one of which should be mixed with purifying soil. The washes which remove the physical presence of the najas-filth are deemed one wash even if they were numerous. In the case of using little water for removing the najas-filth, i.e., less than two qullahs, it is required to pour the water on the najas-filth. However, putting a najas-filth in an amount of water which is two qullahs or more will not make the water najas-filthy unless it changes it.
Chapter 10 Additional Conditions of Prayer
Among the conditions of prayer are:
1. To be Muslim;
2. The setting in of the prayer time;
3. To direct one’s chest towards the Qiblah;
4. To be at the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz), i.e., at the age which the child understands when addressed and answers when asked;
5. To know this prayer is obligatory;
6. Not to deem any of the integrals of the prayer recommended (sunnah1);
7. To cover the whole body of the free woman, i.e., to conceal the skin and hair and its color, except for the face and hands, and to cover the area between the navel and the knees of the male and of the female slave from all sides except from underneath.
Chapter 11 Invalidators of Prayer
Prayer is invalidated by:
1. Uttering even two letters or one meaningful letter unless one forgets and it is little;
2. Performing many moves, which according to some scholars are as many as what would last for the duration of one rak^ah. According to other scholars three consecutive moves invalidate the prayer. The first saying, however, has a stronger evidence;
3. Performing an excessive move;
4. Adding an extra integral which involves action;
5. Performing one move with the purpose of playing;
6. Eating and drinking except if one forgets and it is little;
7. Intending to interrupt prayer;
8. Making an intention to interrupt prayer contingent on the occurrence of an incident;
9. Hesitating about interrupting prayer;
10. The completion of an integral while the doubt about one’s intention of the opening saying of Allahu akbar (taharrum) is still persisting or doubting for a long time about this intention.
Chapter 12 Conditions for the Rewardability of Prayer
In addition to what has been mentioned, prayer is rewardable by Allah, subhanah, if the following are satisfied:
1. One performs the prayer seeking Allah’s reward only;
2. One’s food, clothing, and place of prayer are lawful;
3. One’s heart has feared Allah for at least a moment during the prayer.
One’s prayer is valid but no reward is granted if these three conditions are not met
Chapter 13 Integrals of Prayer
The integrals of prayer are seventeen:
1. To have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer and of its obligation when obligatory, and to specify the prayer which is performed for a particular reason or time;
2. To say ‘Allahu akbar’ loud enough to hear oneself, as is required in every verbal integral;
3. To stand (qiyam) for the obligatory prayer, when able;
4. To recite the Fatihah, including
and doubling the letters that should be doubled, in order and succession without lengthy interruption, articulating its letters properly, and avoiding any error (lahn) whether or not it breaches the meaning. An error which does not breach the meaning is unlawful, but it does not invalidate the prayer unless done intentionally;
5. To bow until one’s palms could reach one’s knees (ruku^);
6. To remain motionless in ruku^ for the duration of saying ‘subhan-Allah’ (tuma’ninah);
7. To straighten up after ruku^ (‘i^tidal);
8. To remain motionless for the duration of saying ‘subhan-Allah’;
9. To prostrate twice by putting all or part of one’s uncovered forehead on one’s praying ground, with one’s lower body (buttocks) higher than one’s upper part, and putting part of one’s knees, the inside of one’s hands and the bottom of one’s toes on the ground;
10. To have tuma’ninah in prostration;
11. To sit between the two prostrations;
12. To have tuma’ninah in this sitting;
13. To sit for saying the last tashahhud, as-Salatu ^alan-Nabiyy, and the closing salam;
14. To say the last tashahhud; one says:
The minimum tashahhud is:
15. To say as-Salatu ^alan-Nabiyy, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. The minimum is:
16. To say the closing salam. The minimum is:
17. To observe the order. To intentionally perform the integrals of prayer out of order invalidates the prayer. An example is if one intentionally prostrated before one’s ruku^. If one forgets an integral, one must return to that integral unless one has reached that same integral (or what is after it in the next or subsequent rak^ah). In such a case, what was performed in-between is canceled. An example is if one did not remember leaving out ruku^ except after having performed ruku^ or prostration of the subsequent rak^ah. In such a case what is between the missing ruku^ and the performed ruku^ is canceled, and what is after this performed ruku^ is the continuation of the rak^ah.
Chapter 14 The Congregational Prayer (Jama^ah) and the Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah)
The Congregational Prayer (Jama^ah) is a communal obligation (fard kifayah) upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused males.
In the Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah), to pray in congregation (jama^ah) is a personal obligation (fard ^ayn) upon the free, pubescent, and unexcused male inhabitants if they were forty and living in buildings, not tents.
The Friday Prayer is also obligatory upon the men who intend to stay in the town of Jumu^ah for four whole days, not counting the two days of entry and exit, and upon those who reside out of the town but can hear the resounding call of a person who is standing at its edge closest to him.
Conditions of the Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah)
The conditions of the Friday Prayer are:
1. The setting in of Dhuhr prayer time;
2. The aforementioned forty inhabitants must hear the two speeches (khutbahs) during the time for Dhuhr prayer and before praying the Jumu^ah Prayer;
3. The Jumu^ah Prayer must be performed in congregation by the aforementioned forty inhabitants;
4. Another Jumu^ah Prayer must not be performed simultaneously in the same town. If the opening Allahu akbar (tahrimah) of one prayer preceded that of another, the former would be valid and the latter would be invalid. This is true if the people were able to meet in one place. If it was hard for them to meet in one place, then both Jumu^ah prayers would be valid–the former and the latter.
Integrals of the Two Speeches (Khutbahs)
The speaker must observe the following integrals of the two speeches:
1. Praising Allah (hamdullah) in both speeches;
2. Performing Salat ^ala an-Nabiyy, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, in both speeches;
3. Commanding the audience to be God-fearing (taqwa) in both speeches;
4. Reciting an ayah which has a complete meaning in either of the two speeches;
5. Saying a supplication (du^a’) for the believers in the second speech.
Conditions of the Two Speeches
The conditions of the two speeches are:
1. Purification from both states of ritual impurity and from najas-filth on the body, clothes, place and what is carried by the speaker;
2. To cover the unlawful nakedness (^awrah);
3. To stand;
4. To sit between the two speeches;
5. To observe the succession without lengthy interruption between the integrals of the two speeches, and between the two speeches and the prayer;
6. To say the integrals of the two speeches in Arabic.
Following the Imam in Prayer
Everyone who follows an imam while performing prayer–the Jumu^ah Prayer or other prayers–must fulfill the following obligations:
1. Not be ahead of one’s imam in the standing position or in saying the opening Allahu akbar. The prayer of the follower (ma’mum) is invalid if he says his opening Allahu akbar during that of the imam. Simultaneity with the imam in other parts of the prayer is disliked (makruh), with the exception of saying: “Amin”;
It is unlawful (haram) for the ma’mum to precede the imam by one integral action. One’s prayer is invalidated by inexcusably preceding the imam by two consecutive integral actions which are both long or one is long and the other is short. Similarly, the ma’mum invalidates his prayer if he lags behind the imam by two integral actions without an excuse, and by more than three long integral actions despite an excuse. If the ma’mum stays behind to finish the Fatihah and during this time the imam has finished his ruku^ and two prostrations, and has sat for the tashahhud or stood up, then the ma’mum must stop reciting the Fatihah and be in unison with his imam. In addition to this, the ma’mum must perform a rak^ah after the closing salam of the imam. However, if the ma’mum finishes reciting the Fatihah before the imam has sat for the tashahhud or stood up for another rak^ah, then the ma’mum follows his own order until he catches up with the imam.
2. Know the movement of one’s imam;
3. Be with one’s imam in a mosque (masjid), or else within 300 cubits;
4. Not have any barrier between one (the ma’mum) and the imam which prevents one (the ma’mum) from reaching the imam;
5. Have the format of one’s prayer agree with the format of the imam’s prayer. For example, it is invalid for the performer of the daily obligatory prayer to follow the performer of the Funeral Prayer (Salat-al-Janazah);
6. Not disagree enormously with the imam in a recommended act (sunnah), like the sitting for the first tashahhud. If the imam does it or leaves it, then the ma’mum does it with the imam or stands up with him;
7. Have the intention to follow the imam while saying the opening Allahu akbar in the Jumu^ah Prayer, and in other prayers, before following the imam. If the ma’mum was performing the Jumu^ah Prayer without having the intention to follow the imam within the opening Allahu akbar, his prayer would be invalid. In other than the Jumu^ah Prayer, the intention to follow the imam must be in the heart before following the imam in his moves. Following the imam in his moves without the intention to follow invalidates the ma’mum’s prayer. However, if one’s moves agree with the imam’s moves accidentally and unintentionally, one does not invalidate one’s prayer. To sum up this matter: If one followed the imam’s moves on purpose without an intention to pray in congregation (jama^ah), then one would invalidate his prayer whether he waited for a long or short time. However, if one waited for a long time but did not follow the imam’s moves, his prayer would not be invalidated.
It is obligatory upon the imam to intend to lead the prayer in the Jumu^ah Prayer and the repeated prayer, but it is recommended (sunnah) to do that in other prayers. The repeated prayer is the prayer one reperforms after having prayed it alone because he found a person to pray jama^ah with him, or he has already prayed jama^ah but wants another person to earn the reward of jama^ah.
Chapter 15 The Funeral (Janazah)
Washing, shrouding, praying for, and burying the dead Muslim is a communal obligation (fard kifayah) if he was born alive. Shrouding and burial are obligatory for a member of the People of the Book who is a subject of the Islamic State (dhimmiyy). Moreover, washing, shrouding, and burial are obligatory for a stillborn Muslim. The Funeral Prayer is not performed for a dhimmiyy or the stillborn Muslim. Whoever dies as a result of fighting the blasphemers will be shrouded in his battle clothes. If the battle clothes are not enough, more material will be added. He will be buried, but not washed; and the Funeral Prayer will not be performed for him.
Washing and Shrouding the Dead
The minimum obligatory washing of the dead is to remove the najas-filth and to use purifying water to wash the dead’s whole skin and hair, even if the hair was thick.
The minimum obligatory shroud is that which covers the whole body. Three wraps are used for the one who died with an inheritance exceeding his debts provided he did not leave a will advising not to wrap him three times.
The Funeral Prayer (Salat al-Janazah)
The minimum obligatory prayer for the dead is:
1. To intend to perform the obligatory Funeral Prayer for that dead person in particular, as one is saying the opening ‘Allahu akbar’.
2. To stand while performing the Funeral Prayer, if one is able;
3. To recite the Fatihah;
4. To say Allahu akbar;
5. To say Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad;
6. To say Allahu akbar;
7. To supplicate Allah to forgive and have mercy on that dead Muslim;
8. To say Allahu akbar;
9. To say the closing salam.
The one who performs the Funeral Prayer must satisfy the conditions and avoid the invalidators of prayer.
Burial of the Dead
The minimum obligatory burial of the dead requires a hole dug in the ground which prevents the smell from rising and protects the body of the dead person from wild animals. It is recommended (sunnah) to have the grave as deep as a man’s height with his arms extended overhead and to widen the grave. The chest of the dead must be directed towards the Qiblah. It is unlawful (haram) to bury the dead in a mausoleum.