The Basics of the Muslim’s Prayer



The Basics of the
Muslim’s Prayer




The
Basics of the Muslim’s Prayer


Introduction

The five prayers are among the
best acts of worship that the Muslim performs. Performing them is
the best deed after having the correct belief in God and His
Messenger. Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank, was asked
what the best deed was and he said it was performing the obligatory
prayers at the beginning of their times (al­-Bayhaqiyy):

Ñæì ÇáÈíåÞí Ãä ÑÓæá Çááå Õáì
Çááå Úáíå æÓáã ÓÆíá Úä ÃÝÖá ÇáÃÚãÇá ÝÞÇá: “ÇáÕáÇÉ áæÞÊöåÇ” Ãí Ýí Ãæá
æÞÊåÇ.

When we say “prayers” we are
referring to an act of worshipping God which has a specific format
as God revealed to Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank. The
prophets from Prophet Adam to Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise
their rank, ordered their followers to pray as per God’s orders.

Since the prayer is the most
important matter of Islam after having the correct belief in God and
His Messenger, one must plan his life around the prayer. It would be
a great sin to neglect praying when at work if a prayer was required
at that time. If a believer is shopping at the mall or waiting at
the airport and there is no way to get home or to a mosque, he is
still obligated to perform the prayer within its due time instead of
purposely leaving out or delaying the prayer. This indicates the
importance of the obligatory prayer. Doing the obligatory prayer on
time takes priority over other non-obligatory matters.



Chapter 1:
Preparations Before Praying

 

There are five prayers which are
obligatory and rewardable. There are other prayers which are
rewardable but optional to perform. The optional prayers require the
same preparation as the five required prayers. There are several
requirements of the person who performs the prayer. The person
praying must be Muslim and must have reached the state of mental
discrimination which is usually around seven lunar years (about 6
3/4 solar years).


Taharah (Purification)

The Muslim must have the proper
Taharah (purification) before performing the prayers. This comprises
the removal of najas (filthy) substances and performing wudu’
(ablution) or ghusl (full shower).


Removal of Najas
(Filthy substances)

Islamically, there are
substances that are considered filthy and must not be on the
person’s body, clothes, place of prayer, or even carried when
praying. Some of these substances include urine, feces, blood,
vomit, pus, and discharges from the penis and vagina, except maniyy
(semen and the woman’s fluid of orgasm) which is not filthy.

To clean oneself after urinating
and defecating, the person dries himself of all urine with toilet
paper after urinating, and then pours water on the areas where the
urine was. In the case of defecation, the person is correct if he
removes the defecation with toilet paper and then pours water on the
stained area to remove the traces. It is also acceptable to use
either toilet paper or water only. However, the exclusive use of
toilet paper has conditions. The urine must not go beyond the exit
area and must not dry there. Also, one’s defecation must not spread
past the area of the buttocks which comes together when one is
standing.


Wudu’ (Ablution)

Allah revealed:


ÞÇá Çááå ÊÚÇáì:


íóÇ
ÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÐöíäó ÁÇãóäõæÇú ÅöÐóÇ ÞõãúÊõãú Åöáóì ÇáÕøóáÇÉö
ÝÇÛúÓöáõæÇú æõÌõæåóßõãú æóÃóíúÏöíóßõãú Åöáóì ÇáúãóÑóÇÝöÞö
æóÇãúÓóÍõæÇú ÈöÑõÄõæÓößõãú æóÃóÑúÌõáóßõãú Åöáóì ÇáúßóÚúÈóíäö

 

This verse from the Qur’an
means: “0 you who believe, if you stand up for prayer, wash your
face and arms up to [and including] the elbows and wet wipe [part
of] your head and wash your feet up to [and including] the ankles.”
(al-Ma’idah, 6)

 

Wudu’ (Ablution) has obligatory
and recommended parts. The obligatory parts are those parts which if
left out the wudu’ is not valid. The recommended parts are those
parts which if left out the wudu’ would still be valid, but one
misses out on that reward. The wudu’ must be made with water only.


How to Perform Wudu’

  1. It is recommended to
    say

    ÈöÓã Çááå
      “Bismillah” (with the Name
    of Allah) while washing the hands.

  2. It is recommended to wash
    the two hands with the wrists three times (figure-1- ).

  3. It is recommended to rinse
    the mouth three times using the right hand (figure -2- ).



Figure-1-

Figure-2-

  1. It is recommended to draw
    water into the nose with the right hand and to blow it out of
    the nose with the left hand three times (figure-3- ).

  2. It is an obligation to have
    the proper intention. When the water touches the first part of
    your face say in your heart “I intend to perform wudu’”.

  3. It is an obligation to wash
    your face, from the normal hairline to the chin and from one ear
    to the other including the hair and skin. The inner part of the
    man’s thick beard is excluded (figure-4- ).

    If a string was put at the
    middle of the forehead at the normal hairline and drawn to the
    top of the ear, then one washes all that would be below that
    string, both hair and skin, with the ears excluded
    (figure-4a-4b).

    It is recommended to wash
    the face three times.



Figure-3-

Figure-4-

  1. It is an obligation to wash
    the hands, forearms, and elbows.

    It is recommended to wash
    them three times each. Start with the right and then the left
    (figure-5- ).

  2. It is an obligation to wet
    wipe part of the head, between the normal hairline and the
    occiput (figure-6- ).



Figure-4a-

Figure-4b-




Figure-5-


Figure-6-

  1. It is recommended to wet
    wipe both ears three times (figure-7- ).

  2. It is an obligation to wash
    the feet with the ankles. It is recommended to wash them three
    times starting with the right foot (figure-8- ).

  3. Do the obligatory parts
    (from step 1 to 10) in the aforementioned order.

  4. It is recommended to say a
    supplication after finishing wudu’ (see Appendix 1).




Figure-7-


Figure-8-

 


Benefit


It is preferred to use a small amount of water
in wudu’ and ghusl. It is mentioned in Sahih Muslim that the
Messenger of Allah

used a mudd

ãÏ
(about half a cup) of water for wudu’ and a sa^

ÕÇÚ
(about a pint) for ghusl. A mudd is
the fill of a pair of average-sized hands cupped together. The sa^
is four mudds. It is also mentioned in Sahih Muslim that the
Messenger of Allah

used six (6) mudds (about 3 cups) of water for wudu’ and thirty (30)
mudds (about one cup less than a gallon) for ghusl.


Invalidators of Wudu’

If you have wudu’ and any of the
matters which invalidate wudu’ takes place, you must not pray until
you make a new wudu’ Among the invalidators of wudu’ are:

1.
The emission of any
substance from the eliminatory outlets, such as urine, defecation,
or gas, except maniyy.

2.
Touching the penis or
vagina, or the anus with the inside of the bare hand (the palm).

3.
Losing the mind or losing
consciousness

4.
Sleeping without having
the buttocks firmly seated, such as sleeping on the stomach, back,
and on the side.

5.
Skin to skin contact with
a member of the opposite sex, who has reached an age where he or she
is normally desired. (the females whom one is not allowed to marry
in any circumstance such as his mother, sister etc. (are not
included).

6.
If one of these matters
happens to you during prayer, you stop the actions of the prayer,
perform wudu’ and then start the prayer from the beginning.


Ghusl (Full Shower)

You must perform a ghusl (full
shower) in order to pray after:

1.
You perform sexual
intercourse.

2.
Your menstruation ends.

3.
Your postpartum bleeding
ends.

4.
You give birth to a
child, even if it was without bleeding.

5.
Your maniyy is emitted


How to Perform Ghusl

After removing any najas from
the body, the ghusl is performed in the following way:

1.
It is obligatory for you
to intend in the heart to perform the obligation of ghusl when the
water first touches your body.

2.
It is obligatory to wash
the whole body with water, including all of the hair. It is
recommended to to do this three times.

 

When performing either the wudu’
or ghusl, all substances which prevent water from reaching the parts
to be washed and wiped must be removed. Examples are: nail polish on
fingernails and toenails and waterproof mascara.

 


Knowing the Prayers
and their Times

You can pray only after being
sure that the prayer time is in. Hence, you need to learn how to
recognize when the prayer times come in and go out.


The Five Obligatory Prayers

Allah revealed:


ÍÇÝÙæÇ Úáì
ÇáÕáæÇÊ

 

which means:
“Perform the [five obligatory] prayers” (al-Baqarah, 238).

The Messenger of Allah

said:


which means: “There are five
prayers that Allah obligated the slaves to perform. Whoever performs
them properly without belittling their obligation, Allah promised to
admit him into Paradise. Whoever leaves them out does not have a
promise from Allah to have Paradise without torture before. If He
willed, He tortures him, and if He willed, He forgives him”.
Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad.

It is obligatory to perform each
of these five prayers in its due time. It is better to perform each
prayer early in its time.


Dhuhr (Noon)
Prayer [Four rak^ahs (cycles)]:

Its time begins when the sun has
declined westward from the middle of the sky (zenith). The time
remains until the length of the shadow of an object becomes equal to
that of the object per Se, in addition to the length of the shadow
of that object when the sun was at its zenith. For example, if the
length of your shadow when the sun is at its zenith is 5 feet and
you are 6 feet high, then once your shadow becomes 11 feet long the
Dhuhr prayer time ends.


^Asr
(Mid-afternoon) Prayer [Four rak^ahs]

As soon as the Dhuhr prayer time
ends the ^Asr prayer time starts. Its time remains until sunset.


Maghrib (Sunset)
Prayer [Three rak^ahs]

After the entire disk of the sun
has set, then the Maghrib prayer time begins. This prayer time lasts
until the redness has disappeared in the western horizon.


^Isha’ (Nightfall)
Prayer [Four rak^ahs]

As soon as the Maghrib prayer
time is finished the ^isha’ prayer time begins. You can be certain
that this prayer time is in when you can see many small stars in the
sky on a clear night. This prayer time lasts until the true dawn
appears.


Subh or Fajr
(Dawn) Prayer [Two rak ^ahs]

The true dawn begins when we see
light spread at the horizon in the East. When the true dawn appears
the Fajr prayer time has begun and this prayer time remains until
the first glimpse of the disk of the sun appears on the Eastern
horizon.


The Covering for the Prayer

The women must cover everything
but their faces and hands with a material which conceals the color
of their skin. The body must remain covered throughout the various
movements of the prayer. So if, for example upon bending, the
woman’s scarf hangs forward exposing her neck from an angle, this is
not acceptable. Either the woman needs to be sure that her clothing
is tucked in properly to prevent exposure, or she may put clothing
over her normal clothing which does not allow exposure at angles.
This clothing has an added benefit in that it conceals the shape of
the body, for it is disliked for the shape of the woman’s body to be
apparent while she is praying.

For the man, his area between
his navel and his knees must be covered during the prayer. Like for
the woman, the material with which he covers this area must not be
see-through; that is, it must be opaque so as to conceal the color
of the skin.



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Chapter 2: The Salah
(Prayer)

 

There are five (5) prayers which
must be performed by the Muslims and are called “obligatory”
prayers. It is a great sin to neglect performing any of these
obligatory prayers. Among the merits of performing the obligatory
prayers is that one’s small sins, which may be committed between
prayers, are forgiven. The Prophet , may Allah raise his rank, said:


which means: “Whoever makes a
complete wudu’, his sins will depart his body, until they leave from
under his nails” (Muslim).


How to Perform the
Dhuhr (Noon) Prayer

The Dhuhr Prayer is four rak^ahs

1.
Facing the Qiblah: It is
obligatory to stand directing your chest to the honorable Qiblah.
The Qiblah is the Ka ^ bah in Makkah.

2.
Intention: It is
obligatory to intend in your heart performing the obligatory Dhuhr
prayer. Do that while saying 

Çááå ÇßÈÑ
 Allahu akbar (God is great).

An example is to say in your heart “I intend to pray the obligatory
Dhuhr prayer”.

 

3.
The Opening Takbir: It is
obligatory to say Allahu akbar at least as loud as you can hear
yourself, while raising your hands next to your ears. Raising your
hands is a recommended part (figure-1-).



Figure-1-

Figure-2-

 

4.
Standing: It is
obligatory to stand in the obligatory prayer when able. It is
recommended to hold the wrist of the left hand with the right hand,
placing both above the navel (figure-2a-2b).

5.
Reciting the Fatihah: It
is obligatory to recite the Fatihah (the first chapter of the Qur’an)
at least as loud as you can hear yourself. It is an obligation to
recite the Fatihah properly, that is, to pronounce all the letters
correctly. Learn the recitation of the Fatihah from a qualified
teacher (see Appendix 3).

 

 


Figure-2a-


Figure-2b-

Whoever cannot recite the Fatihah correctly must recite other parts
of the Qur’an, the number of letters of which should be at least
equal to that of the Fajihah (156 letters). If one knows one or more
qyahs of the Fatihah, one may repeat them as many times as would
render minimally the same number of letters in the Fatihah. If one
cannot recite any ayah of the Fatihah, one recites other ayahs of
the Qur’an the letters of which add up to at least the same number
of letters of the Fatihah. If one cannot recite any part of the
Qur’an, one must recite certain words of dhikr, such as

 


subhanallah, al-hamdulillah, la ilaha illallah, and Allahu akbar (I
declare that Allah is clear of all imperfections, praise and thanks
to Allah, no one is God but Allah, and Allah is the Greatest) as
many times as would render minimally the same number of letters in
the Fatihah (Ibn Hibban an-Nawawiyy):

 


For example, reciting Allahu akbar twenty times is sufficient. In
the unusual case of someone being unable to recite the Fatihah,
other parts of the Qur’an, or dhikr statements one stands as long as
reciting the Fatihah with moderate speed takes.

It is recommended to sayÁÇãíä Amin (0
Allah, fulfill my request) after finishing the Fatihah, and to
recite at least one verse from another chapter of the Qur’an in the
first and second rak ah (see Appendix 5).

It is also recommended before reciting the Fajihah in the first
cycle to say the Tawajjuh supplication and then the isti adhah
(asking for Allah’s protection from the cursed devil) (see Appendix
2).

6.
The Ruku^” (Bowing): It
is obligatory to bend at the waist until your palms can reach your
knees (figure-3-) and stay still in this position for at least the
time it takes to say

ÓÈÍÇä Çááå
subhanallah.

It is recommended upon bending to raise your hands next to your ears
and say Allahu akbar. Also it is recommended while in ruku^, to say
three times:  ÓõÈÍÇäó ÑóÈøöíó
ÇáÚÙíã
subhana Rabbiyal- ^Adhim (Praise
be to my Great Lord).



Figure -3a-

Figure -3b-

 

 

7.
The I^ tidal
(Straightening up): It is obligatory to straighten your back and
stay still in this position for at least the time it takes to say
subhanallah (figure-4-). It is recommended while raising your trunk
to raise your hands next to your ears and to say

ÓóãÚó Çááåõ áöãóäú ÍóãöÏóåõ 
sami^ allahu
liman hamidah (Allah hears who praises Him). While your back is
straight up it is recommended to say
 ÑóÈøäóÇ
áóßó ÇáÍóãÏõ
Rabbana lakal-hamd (0 our
Lord, to You the praise is due).

8.
The Sujiud (Prostration):
It is obligatory to go down to the floor and prostrate by pressing
your bare forehead, and putting your palms, knees, and pads of the
toes on the floor. Both feet are kept vertical with the heels up and
the toepads down touching the floor. Stay still in this position for
at least the time it takes to say subhanallah (figure-5-).



Figure
-4a-

Figure
-4b-

It is recommended upon going down to the floor to raise your hands
next to your ears and to say Allahu akbar.

Also it is recommended while in sujud to say three times  subhana
Rabbiyal-‘a la (Praise be to my Supreme Lord).

It is also recommended while in sujud to place your hands next to
your shoulders, having your fingers together directed towards the
Qiblah.

It is recommended for the male to keep his elbows away from his
sides in his sujud and in his ruku ^, and to keep his abdomen lifted
away from his thighs in his sujud (figure­5a-5b). However, the
female keeps her elbows pulled in to her sides in her sujud and ruku
and keeps her trunk close to her thighs in her sujud (figure-5c-).



Figure
-5b-

Figure
-5c-

9.
The Sitting between the
two Sujuds: It is obligatory to raise your trunk from prostration
and sit, staying still in this position for at least the time it
takes to say subhanallah (figure-6a-).

It is recommended to say Allahu akbar while coming to sitting.

Also, it is recommended while sitting to say:


Rabbighfir li warhamni wajburni warfa ^ ^ni warzuqni wahdini wa ^afini
(0 my Lord, forgive me, have mercy on me, fulfill my needs, raise
me, provide for me, guide me, and protect me from sickness). It is
also recommended to do the sitting with the left foot tucked under
the buttocks while the right foot is kept vertical as in sujud
(figure-6b-).

 




Figure -6a-


Figure -6b-

An alternate recommended way of sitting is to rest the buttocks on
the heels of both feet which are kept as in sujud (figure-6c-)

It is recommended that the hands be placed on the thighs at the
knees with the fingers extended and spread slightly towards the
Qiblah.

 

10.
It is obligatory to
perform a second sujud from your sitting position. This sujud is
similar to the first sujud.

After the second sujud is fulfilled you have completed the first rak^ah
(cycle) of the prayer.




Figure -6c-


Figure -7-

11.
It is obligatory to stand
up for the second rak^ah . It is recommended while doing so to say
Allahu akbar. Repeat steps 5 to 10. This ends your second rak^ah .

 

12.
It is recommended at this
time to sit up from sujud, recite the Tashahhud (see Appendix 4),
and say 
Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad (see Appendix 4) at least as loud as
you can hear yourself.

It is recommended to sit with the feet as in step 9. An alternate
way of sitting is to rest the buttocks on both crossed feet
(figure-7-). It is also recommended to keep both hands on your
thighs. The fingertips of your left hand should be spread towards
your knee. In this sitting, the fingers of the right hand are
lightly fisted except for the index finger which is extended
slightly down (figure-8a-). The index finger is lifted slightly at
saying
ÅáÇø Çááå 
illallah (in the Tashahhud)
and is kept as such until the end of this sitting (figure-8b-).

 




Figure -8a-


Figure -8b-

 

13.
It is obligatory to stand
up and do two more rak^ahs in the same way that you did from steps 5
to 11. It is recommended while rising for the third rak ^ah to raise
your hands next to your ears and say Allahu akbar. However, raising
the hands is not recommended while rising for the fourth rak^ah .

14.
Upon completion of the
second sujud of the last rak^ah, it is obligatory to sit up, recite
the Tashahhud, and say Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad (see Appendix
4).

It is recommended to keep the hands as in step 12. However, after
the index finger is lifted slightly at saying illallah it is kept as
such until the end of the prayer.

For this sitting it is also recommended to pass the left foot past
the right leg and place the buttocks on the floor, keeping the right
foot as in sujuji (figure-9-).

 



Figure -9-

Afterwards, it is recommended to say (see Appendix 4). Then it is
recommended to say a supplication such as:

 


Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanah, wa fil- ‘akhirati hasanah, wa qina
^adhaban-nar, which means: “0 our Lord, grant us in this life and in
the Hereafter good things, and protect us from the torture of the
Hellfire”.

15.
The Ending Salam: It is
obligatory to say 
as­salamu ^alaykum at least as loud as you can hear yourself. It is
recommended to say  
as-salamu ^alaykum wa Rahmatullah first to one’s right and then to
one’s left (figure-10-).

By saying this your Dhuhr prayer is ended.




Figure -10a-


Figure -10b-

 



How to Perform the ^Asr (Mid-afternoon) and ^Isha’ (Nightfall)
Prayers

The ^Asr and ^Isha’ prayers are
performed exactly as the Dhuhr prayer. However, in step 2 you intend
the obligatory ^Asr and ^ ^Isha’ prayers, respectively. Moreover, it
is recommended to recite the Qur’an in a louder manner in the first
two rak^ahs “ of the ^Isha’ prayer.


How to Perform
the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer

The three rak^ahs ^ of the
Maghrib prayer are performed exactly as the first three rak^ahs of ^Isha’.
After the second sujud of the third rak^ah it is obligatory to sit
up and do steps 14 and 15.


How to
Perform the Subh or Fajr (Dawn) Prayer

The two rak^ahs “ of the Fajr
(or Subh) prayer are performed exactly like the first two rak^ahs of
the ^Isha’ prayer, but with the intention of performing the
obligatory Fajr (or Subh) prayer.

After the second sujud of the
second rak^ah ^ , do steps 14 and 15. Also after saying Rabbana
lakal-hamd in the  I^tidal (step 7) of the second rak^ah ^ , it is
recommended to say the Qunut supplication (see Appendix 6) at least
as loud as you can hear yourself.


Invalidators of the Prayer

In addition to leaving out the
obligatory parts, there are other matters that invalidate the
prayer. They must be known to be avoided. Among these matters are:

1.
Saying words other than
the words of the prayer intentionally, remembering that one is
praying, and knowing that it is forbidden to do so.

2.
Making many moves for a
time that is enough to make one rak^ah .

3.
Performing an excessive
move, such as an excessive jump.

4.
Adding an extra
obligatory action such as making two ruku^s or three sujuds in one
rak^ah, on purpose and while remembering that one is praying.

5.
Making one move with the
intention of playing, such as to extend one’s tongue or to wink
playfully.

6.
Eating or drinking even a
small amount while remembering one is praying.

7.
Invalidating one’s
ablution, such as passing gas or urine.

8.
Intending in the heart to
interrupt the prayer. Intending to interrupt it if a specific matter
happens, such as if one holds: “if the door bell rings I will
interrupt my prayer”, invalidates the prayer immediately.


The Jam^ah
(Congregational) Prayer

It is very rewardable to perform
the five obligatory prayers in congregation. This can be done in the
masjids (mosques) and elsewhere. In the congregational prayer one
person (imam) leads the prayer, with one (ma’mum) or more persons
following him. The reward of the prayer performed in congregation is
27 times that of the one performed individually, as mentioned in the
hadith narrated by Imam Muslim:


While following the imam in the
congregational prayer:


  • Your heels must not be ahead of those of your imam. It is
    recommended that they be behind those of the imam.


  • Say your opening takbir only after the iman has finished saying
    his opening takbir.


  • Have the intention to follow the iman. For example, intend in
    the heart to follow the imam, praying the obligatory Dhuhr
    prayer.

  • It
    is recommended that you wait for the iman to change his position
    before you go to that same position.


The Jumu^ah (Friday) Prayer

Friday is the best day of the
week. On Friday there are certain blessings that may be bestowed
particular to that day. The Muslim men are required to attend the
Friday prayer as stated in the Holy Qur’an (al-Jumu ^ah, 9):


 íóÇ ÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÐöíäó ÁÇãóäõæÇ
ÅöÐóÇ äõæÏöí áöáÕøóáÇÉö ãöä íóæúãö ÇáúÌõãõÚóÉö ÝóÇÓúÚóæúÇ Åöáóì
ÐößúÑö Çááåö æóÐóÑõæÇ ÇáúÈóíúÚó Ðóáößõãú ÎóíúÑñ áøóßõãú Åöä ßõäÊõãú
ÊóÚúáóãõæäó

Prophet Muhammad said:


which means: “Performing the
Jumu ^ah prayer is an obligation upon every [male] pubescent
person.” (an­Nasa’iyy) Although not obligated, women can pray the
Friday prayer.

The Friday prayer is usually
performed in a congregation at a mosque. It is performed in the
Dhuhr prayer time, replacing the Dhuhr prayer for that day. Instead
of the four rak ^ahs of the Dhuhr prayer, you pray only two rak^ahs
and begin your prayer intending to pray the congregational Friday
prayer instead of intending the Dhuhr prayer.

If you miss joining the group of
the Friday prayer, then you must pray the Dhuhr prayer with its
normal four rak ^ahs.

At the Friday prayer, the group
listens attentively to two speeches which the imam gives before the
prayer. Both the speeches and the prayer are done in the Dhuhr
prayer time,. and the prayer follows immediately after the speeches.


Janazah (Funeral) Prayer

Upon the death of a Muslim,
Muslims are obligated to pray for him. Just like in the obligatory
prayers, one must have wudu’.

However, the Funeral prayer does
not have ruku ^ or sujud. It is recommended that the dead person be
laid in front of the imam.


How to Perform
the Janazah (Funeral) Prayer

1.
Stand facing the Qiblah
with your chest.

2.
Have the intention: “I
intend to pray the Funeral prayer for this dead Muslim” while
saying: Allahu akbar.

3.
Recite the Fatihah
softly, then say Allahu akbar.

4.
Say  
Allahumma salli ^ ala Muhammad. It is better if you recite the whole
Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah, then say Allahu akbar.

5.
Make supplication for the
dead Muslim 
Allahumma-ghfir lahu warhamh (u). It is better to include other
Muslims and to say:


Allahumma-ghfir lihayyina wa mayyitina, wa shahidina wa gha’ibina wa
saghirina wa kabirina, wa dhakarina wa unthana. Allahumma man
ahyaytahu minna fa ahyihi ^alal-Islam, wa man tawaffaytahu minna fa
tawaffahu ^alal-’iman.

This means: “0 Allah, forgive our dead and alive, our present and
absent, our young and old, our male and female [Muslims]. 0 Allah,
whomever among us You gave life, let him live with Islam. Whomever
among us You took life from, let him die with Iman (Faith)”. Then
say Allahu akbar.

6.
It is recommended to say:

 


Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu wa la taftinna ba ^dah(u), which means:
“0 Allah, do not deprive us of the reward of our praying for him,
and do not test us after him”.

7.
Say as-salamu ^ alaykum.
It is recommended to say: as­salamu ^alaykum wa rahmatullah while
turning the head to the right, then to say it while turning to the
left.

Upon consoling a Muslim for the death of his Muslim beloved you say:

 


a ^ dhama-llau ajrak(a), wa ahsana ^aza’ak(a), wa ghafara limayyitik,
which means: “May Allah reward you greatly, give you good patience,
and forgive your deceased (loved) one”.

However, upon consoling a Muslim concerning the death of a
non-Muslim relative, you say:

 


a^dhama-llahu ajrak(a), wa sabbarak, which means: “May Allah reward
you greatly and give you patience.”




The Prayer Times And How To Determine Them



Appendix 1

What
is Recommended to Say After Finishing Wudu’?


 

Du
^a’-ul-Wudu’

Ashhadu alla ilaha illallah (u),
wahdahu la sharika lah (u), wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ^ abduhu wa
rasuluh (u). Allahumma-j ^ alni minat-tawwabin (a), waj ^ alni
minal­mutatahhirin. Subhanaka-llahumma wa bi hamdik (a), ashhadu
alla ilaha illa ant (a), astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk.

The
Meaning of the Wudu’ (Ablution) Supplication

I testify that no one is God but
Allah, alone, without a partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His
slave and messenger. 0 Allah, make me among the frequent repenters
and make me among the purified. Praise and thanks be to You, 0
Allah. I testify that no one is God but You. I ask You for
forgiveness and I repent to You.

 



Appendix 2

What
is Recommended to Say After Finishing the Opening Takbir


Du ^a’uliftitah
or Du ^a’ut-Tawajjuh

Wajjahtu wajhiya lilladhi
fataras-samawati wal-’arda hanifam Muslima, wa ma ‘ana
minal-mushrikin. ‘Inna salati wa nusuki wa mahyaya wa mamati lillahi
rabbil­ ^alamin (a), la sharika lah (u), wa bi dhalika ‘umirt (u),
wa ‘ana minal-Muslimin.

The
Meaning of the Opening or Tawajjuh Supplication

I direct myself in worship to
the One Who created the heavens and Earth, following the upright
path, being a Muslim, and not among those who associate partners
with Allah. Surely, my prayer, my acts of worship in obedience, my
life, and my death belong to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, Who has
no partner. With this I was ordered, And I am one of the Muslims.

What
is Recommended to Say Before the Fatihah



Alisti ^adhah

A^udhu billahi
minash-shaytanir-rajm

The
Meaning of the Isti ^adhah

I seek refuge with Allah from
the [harm of the] cursed devil.







Appendix 3

What
Must be Recited in Every Rak^ah

 


ÓæÑÉ  ÇáÝÇÊÍÉ



ÈöÓúãö Çááåö ÇáÑøóÍúãóäö ÇáÑøóÍöíãö {1} ÇáúÍóãúÏõ ááåö ÑóÈøö
ÇáúÚóÇáóãöíäó {2} ÇáÑøóÍúãäö ÇáÑøóÍöíãö {3} ãóáößö íóæúãö ÇáÏøöíäö
{4} ÅöíøóÇßó äóÚúÈõÏõ æÅöíøóÇßó äóÓúÊóÚöíäõ {5} ÇåÏöäóÇ ÇáÕøöÑóÇØó
ÇáãõÓÊóÞöíãó {6} ÕöÑóÇØó ÇáøóÐöíäó ÃóäÚóãÊó Úóáóíåöãú ÛóíÑö
ÇáãóÛÖõæÈö Úóáóíåöãú æóáÇó ÇáÖøóÇáøöíäó {7}


Suratul-Fatihah

1.

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim.

2.
Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-
^alamin

3.
Ar-Rahmanir-Rahim.

4.
Maliki yawmid-Din.

5.
Iyyaka na^budu wa iyyaka
nasta^in.

6.
Ihdinas-siratal-mustaqim

7.
Siratal-ladhina an ^amta
^alayhim,Ghayril-maghdubi ^alayhim wa
lad-dallin.

The
Meaning of the Fatihah

1.
I start my recitation
with the Name of Allah (the One Who deserves to be worshipped), Who
is ar-Rahman (the One Who is merciful to both Muslims and
non-Muslims in this life), and ar-Rahim (the One Who is merciful to
Muslims only in the Hereafter).

2.
Praise and thanks to
Allah, the Rabb (Owner) of the worlds (of angels, humans, jinn, and
others) for the givings He granted without Him being obligated to do
so.

3.
He is ar-Rahman (the One
Who is merciful to both Muslims and non-Muslims in this life), and
ar-Rahim (the One Who is merciful to Muslims only in the Hereafter).

4.
He is the Owner of the
Day of Judgment.

5.
To You (Allah) only we
dedicate worship (the ultimate subjugation), and from You (Allah)
only we seek help.

6.
Keep us guided (firmly)
on the Straight Path (Islam),

7.
Which is the Path of
those upon whom You bestowed guidance by Islam (prophets and other
Muslims), not the path of those whom You willed to punish, or the
path of those who went astray.



Appendix 4

What
is Said in the Sitting

At-Tashahhud
was-Salatul-‘Ibrahimiyyah

At-Tahiyyatul-mubarakat, as-salawatut-tayyibatu
lillah. As­Salamu ^alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa
barakatuh. As-Salamu ^alayna wa ^ala ^ibadillahis-salihin Ashhadu
alla ‘ilaha illallah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah. (End of
the Tashahhud)

Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad,
(This completes the obligation) wa ^ala ‘Ali Muhammad, kama sallayta
^ala ‘Ibrahim, wa ^ala ‘Ali ‘Ibrahim. ‘Innaka Hamidum Majid.
Allahumma barik ^ala Muhammad, wa ^ala ‘Ali Muhammad, kama barakta
^ala ‘Ibrahim, wa ^ala ‘Ali ‘Ibrahim. ‘Innaka Hamidum Majid.

The
Meaning of the Tashahhud and Salatul-’Ibrahimiyyah

The blessed salutations, Five Prayers, and the good deeds are all
owned by Allah. 0 Prophet of Allah, may the safety from infirmities,
and the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you. May safety be
upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah.

I profess (know, believe, and declare) that no one is God but Allah,
and I profess that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

0 Allah, we ask You to raise the rank of Muhammad, and have mercy
upon the Al (wives, Muslim kin, and pious Muslim followers) of
Muhammad, as You raised the rank of Ibrahim, and the
Al of Ibrahim. Verily, You are the One Who
deserves to be praised and thanked, and the One Who is glorified. 0
Allah, we ask You to bless Muhammad, and the Al
of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim, and the Al
of Ibrahim. Verily, You are the One Who deserves to be praised and
thanked, and the One Who is glorified.



Appendix 5


Examples of What Could be Recited After the Fatihah


ÁÇíÉ
ÇáßõÑúÓöíø


Çááåõ áÇó Åöáóåó ÅöáÇøó åõæó ÇáúÍóíøõ
ÇáúÞóíøõæãõ áÇó ÊóÃúÎõÐõåõ ÓöäóÉñ æóáÇó äóæúãñ áøóåõ ãóÇ Ýöí
ÇáÓøóãóÇæóÇÊö æóãóÇ Ýöí ÇáÃóÑúÖö ãóä ÐóÇ ÇáøóÐöí íóÔúÝóÚõ ÚöäúÏóåõ
ÅöáÇøó ÈöÅöÐúäöåö íóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ Èóíúäó ÃóíúÏöíåöãú æóãóÇ ÎóáúÝóåõãú
æóáÇó íõÍöíØõæäó ÈöÔóìúÁò ãøöäú Úöáúãöåö ÅöáÇøó ÈöãóÇ ÔóÇÁ æóÓöÚó
ßõÑúÓöíøõåõ ÇáÓøóãóÇæóÇÊö æóÇáÃóÑúÖó æóáÇó íóÄõæÏõåõ ÍöÝúÙõåõãóÇ
æóåõæó ÇáúÚóáöíøõ ÇáúÚóÙöíãõ


ööAyatul-Kursiyy


Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim.

Allahu la ilaha illa Huwal-Hayyul-Qayyum,

la ta’khudhuhu sinatuwwala nawm,

lahu ma fis-samawati wama fil-’ard,

man dhalladhi yashfa^u
^indahu illa bi ‘idhnih,

ya^lamu ma bayna aydihim wama
khalfahum,

wa la yuhituna bishay’immin ^ilmihi
illa bima sha’,

wasi^a Kursiyyuhus-samawati
wal-’ard,

wa la ya’uduhu hifdhuhuma,

wa Huwal- ^Aliyyul- ^Adhim.



The Meaning of Ayatul-Kursiyy


 

I start my recitation with the Name of Allah (the One Who deserves
to be worshipped), Who is ar-Rahman (the One Who is very merciful to
Muslims and non-Muslims in this life), and Who is ar-Rahim (the One
Who is very merciful to Muslims only in the Hereafter).

Allah is the One Who is the Only God. He is the One Who is
attributed with an eternal and everlasting Life (which is without
soul, body, blood, bones or need for food). He is the One Who
manages and takes care of the world and does not need any one and
every one needs Him. He is not seized with somnolence or sleep. To
Him belongs what is in the heavens and Earth. No one will intercede,
on the Day of Judgment, except with His permission.

He knows all about His creation. They do not know except that which
Allah allowed them to know.

His Kursiyy extends farther than the heavens and Earth and He is not
exhausted from preserving them.

He is the One Who has the highest status (and does not need a place)
and Who rightly has the attributes of exaltedness, glory, greatness,
and purity from all imperfection.

 



ÓæÑÉ ÇáÅÎáÇÕ


Þõáú åõæó Çááåõ ÃóÍóÏñ {1} Çááåõ
ÇáÕøóãóÏõ {2} áóãú íóáöÏú æóáóãú íõæáóÏú {3}


æóáóãú íóßõä áøóåõ ßõÝõæðÇ ÃóÍóÏñ {4}


Suratul-‘Ikhlas

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim

1. Qul Huwallahu Ahad.

2. Allahus-Samad.

3. Lam yalid wa lam yulad.

4. Wa lam yakullahu kufuwan ahad.

The Meaning of Suratul-’Ikhlas

 

I start my recitation with the Name of Allah (the One Who deserves
to be worshipped), Who is ar-Rahman (the One Who is very merciful to
Muslims and non-Muslims in this life), and Who is ar-Rahim (the One
Who is very merciful to Muslims only in the Hereafter).

1. [0 Muhammad,] say that Allah is One without a partner to Him in
the Self or attributes, and the One Who is indivisible (because He
is not a body.)

2. All creations need Allah and He does not need any of, them.
He is the One to Whom all resort in all types of adversities.
He does not benefit from His creations and does not ward any harm
off Himself by them.

3. Nothing was born out of Him;
so no one inherits Him. He was not born; so no one shares property
with Him. He is not the origin of anything and He did not originate
from anything.

4. He has no equal in any way.



ÓæÑÉ ÇáÝáÞ


Þõáú ÃóÚõæÐõ ÈöÑóÈøö ÇáúÝóáóÞö {1}
ãöä ÔóÑøö ãóÇ ÎóáóÞó {2} æóãöä ÔóÑøö ÛóÇÓöÞò ÅöÐóÇ æóÞóÈó {3} æóãöä
ÔóÑøö ÇáäøóÝøóÇËóÇÊö Ýöí ÇáúÚõÞóÏö {4} æóãöä ÔóÑøö ÍóÇÓöÏò ÅöÐóÇ
ÍóÓóÏó {5}


Suratul-Falaq

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim

1. Qul a^udhu birabbil-falaq. 

2. Min sharri ma khalaq. 

3. Wa min sharri ghasiqin idha
waqab. 

4. Wa min sharrin-naffathati fil-
^uqad. 

5. Wa min sharri hasidin idha
hasad.

The
Meaning of Suratul-Falaq

I start my recitation with the
Name of Allah (the OneWho deserves to be
worshipped), Who is ar-Rahman(the One Who
is very merciful to Muslims and non-Muslims in this life), and Who
is ar-Rahim (the OneWho is very merciful
to Muslims only in the Hereafter).

1.  [O Muhammad,] say: I seek
refuge with Allah, the Lord (Creator and Sustainer) of dawn,

2.  from the evil of what He
created (such as the Devil and fire),

3.  and from the evil of the
night when it comes,

4.  and from the evil of the
witches who blow on knots,

5.  and the evil of the covetous
one when he covets.



ÓæÑÉ ÇáäÇÓ


Þõáú ÃóÚõæÐõ ÈöÑóÈøö ÇáäøóÇÓö {1}
ãóáößö ÇáäøóÇÓö {2} Åöáóåö ÇáäøóÇÓö {3}


ãöä ÔóÑøö ÇáúæóÓúæóÇÓö ÇáúÎóäøóÇÓö
{4} ÇáøóÐöí íõæóÓúæöÓõ Ýöí ÕõÏõæÑö ÇáäøóÇÓö {5}


ãöäó ÇáúÌöäøóÉö æó ÇáäøóÇÓö {6}


Suratun-Nas

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim 

1. Qul a^udhu birabbin-nas. 

2. Malikin-nas. 

3. Ilahin-nas. 

4. Min sharril-waswasil-khannas. 

5. Alladhi yuwaswisu f
sudurin-nas. 

6. Minal-jinnati wan-nas

 

The
Meaning of Suratun-Nas

I start my recitation with the
Name of Allah (the One Who deserves to be worshipped), Who is
ar-Rahman (the One Who is very merciftil to Muslims and non-Muslims
in this life), and Who is ar-Rahim (the One Who is very merciful to
Muslims only in the Hereafter).

 

1.[O
Muhammad,] say: I seek refuge with Allah, the Lord (Creator and
Sustainer) of mankind,

2.the
Owner of mankind, 

3.
[the only] God of mankind, 

4.
from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws (when the Name of Allah
is mentioned), 

5.who
whispers in the hearts of creations, 

6.
among the jinn and mankind.



Appendix 6

What
is Said in the I^tidal of the Second Rak^ah of the Fajr Prayer


Du^aul-Qunut 

Allahummahdini fiman hadayt (a),
wa ^afini fiman ^afayt (a), wa tawallani fiman tawallayt (a), wa
barik li fima a^tayt (a). Wa qini sharra ma qadayt (a), fa ‘innaka
taqdi wa la yuqda ^alayk (a). Wa ‘innahu la yadhillu maw walayt(a),
wa la ya^izzu man ^adayt (a). Tabarakta Rabbana wa ta^alayt (a). Fa
lakal-hamdu ^ala ma qadayt (a). Astagfiruka wa atubu ilayk (a). Wa
sallallahu ^ala Muhammad (iwwa) ^ala alihi wa sahbihi wa sallam.

 

The
Meaning of the Qunut Supplication

O Allah, guide me among those
whom You guided, relieve me from sickness among those whom You
relieved, support me among those whom You supported, bless for me
what You gave me. Protect me against the evil of what You created,
for You are the One Who orders (ordains) and not the One Who is
ordered (ordained for). Whomever You support is not weakened and
ignored, and whomever You oppose is not dignified. O our Lord, may
Your givings increase. You are the Supreme One Whose status is high
and great and You are clear of any imperfection. Praise is due for
what You ordained. I ask You for forgiveness and I repent to You.
May Allah raise the rank of Muhammad, and his Al and Companions. May
Allah protect the Prophet’s Nation from what he feared for it.

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