Anti-Muslim Writers

Anti-Muslim Writers

 Ann Coulter

 Ayaan Hirsi Ali

 Irshad Manji

 Hassan Butt

 Melanie Phillips

 Robert Spencer

 Salman Rushdie

 Tawfik Hamid

 Theodore Dalrymple (Anthony Daniels)


 Wafa Sultan

 Ann Coulter

  Lethally blonde

Ann Coulter has made a career out of saying the
unthinkable. Last week the bestselling American author
caused outrage when she described the widows of 9/11
as 'witches' who revelled in their husbands' deaths.
Mixing soundbites with short skirts, this former
lawyer has become the most extreme - and popular -
polemicist in America. How did that happen? 

Gaby Wood
Sunday June 11, 2006
The Observer,,1794552,00.html

Ann Coulter has a stalker. She doesn't like to dignify
his actions by talking about him, but she'll tell you,
if you ask, that he's what the FBI class as the most
dangerous kind - John Lennon's assassin was one of
these. They're the sort that start out as fans and
turn into your worst enemy.

Feelings about Ann Coulter run high and extreme. Often
described as 'the Republican Michael Moore', Coulter
is possibly even better equipped than Moore to offend
people, because, it seems, she is 100 per cent
shameless. Actually, make that 99 per cent. 'I've
always told my friends,' she says, 'if only I could be
a black Jewish homosexual - then we could really have
some fun! Then I could say anything!'

Luckily, she is a woman, which puts her in a so-called
minority and gives her considerable ammo (literally -
she is very much in favour of guns, partly on account
of the stalker). James Wolcott described her in Vanity
Fair as 'the Paris Hilton of post-modern politics'.
Eric Alterman, columnist for the Nation, calls her
'Rush Limbaugh in a miniskirt' (Limbaugh is a popular
right-wing talk radio host). Sean Penn has an Ann
Coulter action figure on his desk - which he uses to
put out his cigarettes. Press a button and the doll
speaks: 'Why not go to war for oil? We need oil. What
do Hollywood celebrities imagine fuels their private
jets? How do they think their cocaine is delivered to

Coulter's weekly column is published in Human Events,
once Ronald Reagan's favourite paper. It is read by
few outside the conservative heartland, yet she has
achieved a notoriety that suggests a far greater
circulation. Liberals love to hate her, some
conservatives hate her, but every time she writes a
book - and Godless, published this week, is her fifth
- it's an instant bestseller.

She's a little like Batman, or the Joker. You don't
hear from her for a while then suddenly you can't miss
her. This is a can't-miss-her moment. On Tuesday she
went on the Today Show, NBC's morning programme,
defending the passage of Godless that concerns the 11
September widows who lobbied for the creation of the
9/11 commission. She describes them as 'witches' who
have cashed in on their husbands' deaths.

On Wednesday she took up the entire front page of the
New York Daily News: 'Coulter the Cruel', it blared,
next to a picture of Coulter smiling as if she'd just
been crowned Miss World. On Thursday Hillary Clinton
fought back against what she called a 'vicious,
mean-spirited attack'. Perhaps, Clinton suggested,
Coulter's book should have been called 'Heartless'. At
a public reading in Long Island a town councilman
presented Coulter with a letter requesting an apology.
Triumphantly, she tore it up. Ah! The book tour had

'This is of course exactly what she wants,' says Joe
Klein, who tells me that she inspired a character in
his Primary Colors. He adds: 'She's a really cancerous
example of the American political disease. You know,
there's a whole generation of people in this country
who think a serious political discussion is Ann
Coulter and Michael Moore yelling at each other. It's
driven serious, nuanced conversation out of the

Her effect, however, has to be carefully calibrated -
yes, she's a loudmouth right-winger, along the lines
of Limbaugh and broadcaster Bill O'Reilly, and far
more iconic than both of them. But is she no more than
a jester? How dangerous is she?

'She's not dangerous,' Joe Klein clarifies. 'The
phenomenon she represents is dangerous'. Alterman
agrees: 'The effect is to make racism and other forms
of chauvinism acceptable in polite society. You're a
killjoy if you take her seriously.'

The night the Twin Towers fell she wrote a now famous
column suggesting that 'We know who the homicidal
maniacs are. They are the ones cheering and dancing
right now. We should invade their countries, kill
their leaders, and convert them to Christianity'. She
took a whole lot of people with her. She is, as blog
king Mickey Kaus, self-described 'neoliberal' and
friend of Coulter, says, 'one of these people who's
had the so-called Fox effect, of rallying voters to
the polls that nobody thought existed'. Coulter became
a pied piper for a certain kind of patriot.

Entire chapters of other people's books (Alterman's,
and liberal radio host Al Franken's) have been devoted
to pointing out her factual errors. Coulter has
written a book taking down Bill Clinton (High Crimes
and Misdemeanors); one about the so-called collected
lies of the left (Slander); a collection of previously
published columns (How to Talk to a Liberal); a volume
celebrating the work of Joe McCarthy (Treason).
Godless is an expression of her religious views, and
takes in the obvious issues: abortion, science, the
death penalty ...

Some of Coulter's more charming opinions are that the
country would be better off if women couldn't vote,
that in December 2001 America should have attacked
France, and that the death penalty should be brought
back everywhere. She supported apartheid in South
Africa, she has gently suggested that Timothy McVeigh
should have blown up the New York Times building, she
believes that defending the right to abortion is akin
to defending slavery. Airlines, she says, should have
- and flaunt - a policy of racial profiling: 'You are
now free to move about the cabin - Not so fast,

I am due to meet Ann Coulter for lunch, but there has
been some confusion over the location. Her PR emails
me to apologise. 'As you might imagine, her schedule
is very hectic, and I do not have total control over
her until next week,' she writes, effortlessly
confirming my suspicion that Coulter is in fact an
automaton. Total Control? How does that work? One
week, her book publicist; the next, Dick Cheney? I
soon learn that this idea is ridiculous. Coulter would
never let a moderate like Cheney get his hands on her.

When I arrive at the restaurant, Coulter is sitting
down, which is just as well because had I seen at
first how tall she was, I might have fainted.
Coulter's look is that of someone who has paid close
attention to the hairstyles favoured in Stepford, and
to the eyeliner worn by the evil android in
Metropolis. Her motto might as well be: you can never
be too rich, too thin, too blond, too tall, or too
rude. She has a mane of expensively blond hair, the
crane-limbed body type of a pterodactyl, and a smile
that seems entirely un-Machiavellian. Now I

All the interviews I've read involve the interviewer
(usually a liberal man) wanting to dislike her and
coming away with some excuse for her behaviour, on the
grounds that she is actually quite nice in person. And
it turns out to be true that she makes everything seem
like a joke. She loves to argue, she smiles and laughs
with every answer she gives. She's like a puppy
waiting to be thrown a ball. Look, she says, I'm just
doing this for fun. I'd rather be a married
stay-at-home mom, but until that happens, taunting
liberals seems like a good way to fill up my day.

After we've ordered our drinks, I ask Coulter whether
she thinks she owes her success to a conservative
following, or to liberals' need for a bogeyman.

'Oh, that's a good question,' she chuckles. 'One of my
favourite liberal friends has laughed about how it's
just like clockwork: they attack you, and all it does
is give you publicity, and they can't help themselves
- they just keep attacking. Liberals hate me because I
understand them better than they understand
themselves. They pretend not to get the joke.'

As the first plane went into the World Trade Centre,
Coulter was in a cab on her way to LaGuardia airport.
She was listening to the radio she always carried with
her, before i-Pods were invented. 'At first I thought
it was some shock jock joke,' she says now, 'but then
everyone was pulling the same joke'. When the second
plane hit, she leaned forward and told the cab driver
the news. He didn't react. He was a Muslim. Coulter
was instantly alarmed.

After spending all day in a bar in Queens (the bridges
were shut, the subway had stopped, she couldn't get
back into Manhattan) she wrote her infamous 9/11
column on her laptop, and hasn't changed her view
since. Was that her position before, I wonder?

'No, I never cared about the Muslims,' she says of the
people she more frequently refers to as 'ragheads'.
'It seemed like a morass - that's why so many popular
jokes are based on peace in the Middle East. I
thought, it's a morass, other people are dealing with
it, I'll write about Clinton.'

'But you don't think America should intervene on other

'No, I wouldn't have intervened in Bosnia, in fact I
think it's questionable whether we were on the right
side on that. I don't want to be the world's
policeman. But when they start flying planes into our
skyscrapers, then it's time for a little tough love.'

'Do you feel like your personal involvement led you to
those views?'

'No, I don't think it is personal. It's not a personal
thing because my city's been hit. Most of the rest of
America is more anxious to fight the terrorists than
New Yorkers are.'

Coulter thinks conservatives are in a minority in the
United States. 'Oh, we definitely are,' she says
emphatically, 'in places like the Department of
Justice, the CIA, the State Department ...' she pauses
for a millisecond. 'I think we probably have the

What Coulter would like to see is: No Democrats. There
would still be a two-party system, but it would be
composed of Republicans, and moderate Republicans.
'And then,' she says, 'America would be safe. And I've
got to say,' she adds, as she is presented with a
plate of beef carpaccio, 'the way the Democrats are
going, I think that's not as much of a pipe dream as
it seems.'

She couldn't be President herself, she says, because
she couldn't 'do the diplomacy thing'. 'Here's Bush
going around talking about Islam being a religion of
peace - I mean, I know he has to say that, but come
on! No. I could not do that. Those words aren't coming
out of my mouth.'

In Coulter's ideal world, George Bush would be the
leader of the opposition.

I had prepared to meet Ann Coulter with the aim of
finding out how on earth any human being could turn
out to be so extreme. What was her upbringing? When
had she formed these opinions? Why was she so angry?
It was only when we were sitting in the restaurant
that I realised my approach was all wrong.

I looked up over the starched white tablecloth at the
starched white collars of the other patrons. I looked
out at Madison Avenue and its innumerable blond
shoppers. There was nothing unusual about Ann Coulter.
Chances are, if any of these Upper East Siders -
neighbours of hers - were as acid-tongued or as
unconcerned about decorum as she is, they would be
like that too. 'One thing people say to me more than
anything else,' she says, 'besides "you're taller than
I expected" - is: you say exactly what I'm thinking,
and you say the things that no one else will say.'

When I ask who she thinks espouses these views, she
shrugs and says, 'you've seen the maps'. As simple as
that: wherever the America is conservative-coloured
[on the political map], people agree with her. 'She's
not so exceptional, and that's the shock,' an
acquaintance later tells me, 'People disguise
themselves as more sentimental, but what they really
feel is probably closer to what she says. It's quite
wrong to think [her position] is a redneck

Coulter was born in 1961 in New York then moved to
Connecticut, birthplace of both Colt and Winchester
gun manufacturers. Her father was a WASP lawyer who
made his name as a union buster, and her 'Southern
Belle' mother looked after Ann and her two elder
brothers. It was a 'really nice', 'boring', 'happy'
family, she says. Every Friday, they would come into
the city and go to the Philharmonic. As a family they
never talked about personal things. 'It's not
necessarily all about politics but when you're with
smart people, you're talking about things at a higher
level,' Coulter expands, 'You're talking about ideas,
telling jokes, it's not: this is what happened to me

'Who looked after your emotional welfare?' I ask.

Coulter laughs out loud - a laugh that means: what
will these idiot liberals think of next? 'Wasps aren't
into that,' she says. 'In fact, if I ever used the
words "emotional welfare", I would be sent to my room
without dinner.'

She went to Cornell University, then to law school in
Michigan. In 1994 she was hired as a legal adviser to
Paula Jones in her sexual harassment case against Bill
Clinton. But don't mistake her for a feminist. 'It
wasn't feminists who came along and made what Clinton
did to Paula Jones illegal,' she says, 'That's been
illegal in this country since 1492.'

She wasn't simply acting in Jones's interests,
however. Coulter has been quoted as saying that 'we
were terrified that Jones would settle. It was
contrary to our purpose of bringing down the
President.' She got a job working for a Republican
senator, and helped to write the country's laws - some
of which, she says gleefully, the New York Times is
complaining about even now ('I toughened up the
provision on removing criminal aliens from the United

But there was one thing she wasn't so good at when she
was a Senate staffer: 'They did figure out pretty
quickly that I should not be the one meeting with

Why not?

'I started threatening to mace them.'

'I suppose the question that often comes up is, does
she really believe these things or does she say them
for effect?' says Mickey Kaus. 'And I've come to think
she really believes them. She says the same things in
private. They are as sincere as any beliefs any of us

John Cloud, who profiled her for a cover story in Time
last year, ended up thinking she was so funny it must
be some kind of stand-up routine, that she was like a
right-wing Ali G. Coulter tells me that she once went
on the Tonight Show with Jay Leno, and Leno came into
the green room holding a copy of her book. 'You know,'
he said to her, 'I've heard some of these jokes
before, but now that I'm reading your book, I see that
they kept dropping the punch line - this is very

That is exactly the sort of response that some of
Coulter's opponents think is to blame for her
popularity. Eric Alterman was hired at MSNBC with Ann
Coulter 10 years ago in what was her first media job.
'I couldn't believe the crap that was coming out of
her mouth,' he says. Alterman watched Coulter get
fired during a commercial break, after she had mocked
a paraplegic Vietnam vet. 'These people think it's all
a joke,' Alterman says, 'like the guy who wrote the
cover story for Time last year - that 5,000 word love
letter - and decided it was all ironic.

'Well, I don't give the mass audience that much credit
for irony. She's told an awful lot of lies that are
very damaging, and have terrible consequences. There's
a kind of daisy chain in the media that's allowed her
to reach this level, with Hillary Clinton responding
to her comments about 9/11 widows. Hillary Clinton
shouldn't have to wipe that stuff off her shoes. The
gatekeeper function of the media has entirely

In May 1999 Harpers magazine threw a party at Keith
McNally's hip restaurant, Pravda, for Christopher
Hitchens's book about Bill Clinton. For that night at
least, it was the epicentre of the liberal
intelligentsia. Ann Coulter showed up; everyone was
appalled. 'But then they were fascinated by her,' one
partygoer recalls. 'People fell over themselves
wanting to talk to her - especially the older men.
It's one of those things: if you're attracted to
someone, who cares about politics?'

This, Alterman argues, is Coulter's 'great talent - to
make people like her and think there's no consequence
to saying we should be committing mass murder in the
Middle East.' Coulter's friend Jon Ledecky says; 'As a
platonic friend, it's interesting to see intelligent
and handsome men transformed into slobbering groupies
when they meet her.' Coulter herself tells me that
every boyfriend she's had in the past five years has
been a fan: 'a total stranger who walked up to me in a
bar or in the street.'

I ask why her relationships never last long.

'This reason or that reason,' she says.

'It's not because they're afraid of you?'

'Oh no.'

Currently popular in Washington is a blog with an
unprintable title. It takes the form of a fictional
sex scene in which the liberal narrator picks Ann
Coulter up at the farmer's market in Los Angeles and
takes her home. (By the way, Coulter really does have
fans in Hollywood. When the creator of 24 - one of her
favourite shows - threw a party for her there,
promising to introduce her to all the right-wingers,
she assumed 'there would be five of us sipping sodas',
but when she got there, it was 'a huge party'. Anyway,
back to the sex blog.) They get to his place, and turn
each other on by fighting over politics.

'With every point I expressed that ran counter to a
view she held, she removed one article of clothing,'
it reads. 'Soon she sat on my couch naked.' They
climax: 'I repeated every Karl Marx quote I could
think of until I reached my own "historic

See what I mean about her appealing to both sides?

Every Sunday, Coulter goes to church. A mega-church.
In the middle of Manhattan. The pastor packs it with
600 to 800 people four times a day, she says. Once,
she even tried to convert a Muslim boyfriend to
Christianity there. I ask Coulter if she's ever had a
crisis of faith.

'Only when liberals don't attack me enough,' she says
with a smile. 'Then I think: what was the matter with
that column? I thought it was good.'

Quotable Coulter

On 9/11

'If Chicago had been hit, I assure you New Yorkers
would not have cared. New Yorkers would have been
like, "It's tough for them, now let's go back to our
Calvin Klein fashion shows. "'

On Muslims

'The question is not, 'Are all Muslims terrorists?'
The question is, 'Are all terrorists Muslims?' The
answer is yes .'

On her Muslim ex-boyfriend

'The relationship was complicated by his interest in
committing jihad. I took away his box cutters. '

To a Vietnam veteran

'People like you caused us to lose the war.'

On Princess Diana

'Her children knew she was sleeping with all these
men. That just seems the definition of "not a good

On women

'America would be a much better country if women did
not vote.'

On the French

'A bunch of faggots.'

On her critics

'The more vicious they are, the happier I am.'

Conservatives should cringe over Coulter

Posted on Mon, Jun. 12, 2006

Apparently, it's news that Ann Coulter is a nasty
piece of work.

I had rather thought that was the attraction, at least
for those people who find her attractive. So forgive
me for being mildly mystified by last week's headlines
about her most recent spasm of trash mouth, i.e., her
attack on four women who lost their husbands in the
Sept. 11 attacks. But then, the attack is vicious even
by Coulter's standards: In her latest book, whose
title you won't read here, she savages the widows as
''self-obsessed'' and ``witches.''

''These broads are millionaires,'' she writes,
'lionized on TV and in articles about them, reveling
in their status as celebrities and stalked by
grief-arazzis. I've never seen people enjoying their
husbands' deaths so much.''

Evidently, the widow's sins are that they pushed for
an independent commission to investigate 9/11
intelligence failures, they are critical of the Bush
administration, and they endorsed John Kerry for

The nerve of them.

Coulter's tirade has drawn bipartisan condemnation --
New York Democratic Senator Hillary Clinton called it
''vicious,'' while the state's Republican governor,
George Pataki, declared Coulter ''far worse than
insensitive'' -- but c'mon. This is all part of the
shtick for this chick. I mean, we're talking about the
woman who said Timothy McVeigh's only mistake was in
not blowing up The New York Times building and that we
should invade Muslim countries, kill their leaders and
convert the people to Christianity.


Frankly, it's easy to do what Coulter does. Just say
the most outrageous thing in the most inflammatory
way. Just give moral and mental cover to that
small-minded, anti-intellectual strain of the
electorate which recoils like Superman in the face of
Kryptonite from complexity and incertitude. And when
people call you on it, just wrap yourself in the flag
and declare yourself a straight-shootin' conservative
under siege by that mean ol' liberal media.

It plays like gangbusters in Peoria. And never mind
that it's a brazen lie.

Meaning that Ann Coulter is not reviled because she is
conservative. Some of the best and most respected
pundits in the country are conservative: George F.
Will, Kathleen Parker and Charles Krauthammer, to name
just three.

They offer smart, snarky, cogent analyses of world and
national events and if you disagree with them, as I
not infrequently do, you will be required to do some
mental heavy lifting to dismantle their arguments.
They challenge you.


No, Coulter is reviled because she is mean, malicious,
the barbed-wire frontwoman for a cabal of bloviators,
bully boys, and blowhards (Rush Limbaugh, Bill
O'Reilly, Michael Savage and too many others) who are
pleased to regard themselves as the guardians of
conservatism's soul.

Conservatism's soul should sue for slander.

But again, it plays in Peoria. And why not? It is
loud, simple, stupid. Not unlike The Jerry Springer

The nation's political discourse has never been as
polite and decorous as we like to think. Abraham
Lincoln's political foes called him a baboon; Lyndon
Johnson once said that Gerald Ford played too much
football without a helmet.


When, however, even widows (and orphans?) become fair
game for a viperous harridan with an ax to grind and
books to sell, maybe decent people should wonder at
the lines we have crossed and the type of nation we
have become in the process.

Coulter's victims, by the way, felt compelled to
release a statement. It said in part: ``Contrary to
Ms. Coulter's statements, there was no joy in watching
men that we loved burn alive. There was no happiness
in telling our children that their fathers were never
coming home again.''

In a better nation, that would go without saying.

Deadly Intent: Ann Coulter, Word Warrior
Published: June 12, 2006

ONCE again, Ann Coulter has a book in need of
flogging, and once again, people are stunned by what a
"vicious," "mean-spirited," "despicable" "hate-monger"
they say she is.

Ms. Coulter, who seems afflicted by a kind of
rhetorical compulsion, most recently labeled the
widows of 9/11 "harpies." It is just one in a series
from a spoken-word hit parade that seems to fly out of
her mouth uninterrupted by conscience, rectitude or

But Ann Coulter knows precisely what she is saying.
Her current book, "Godless: The Church of Liberalism,"
is heading to the best-seller lists in part because
she has a significant constituency and in part because
no other author in American publishing is better at
weaponizing words. With five books and more than a
million copies in hardcover sales, she plays to win
and is happy to take hostages along the way, including
the women she calls "The Witches of East Brunswick."

"These broads are millionaires, lionized on TV and in
articles about them, reveling in their status as
celebrities and stalked by grief-arazzis. I have never
seen people enjoying their husband's death so much."
That typical Coulter sortie was hardly a misstep on
some overamped talk show. That doozy of a sentence was
written, edited, lawyered and then published. By now,
she, along with Crown Publishing, have come up with a
dexterous formula for kicking up the kind of fuss that
sells books. It looks something like this:

She did not come out of the gate with such ruthless
aplomb. As published at the height of the
Clinton-Lewinsky scandal in 1998, "High Crimes and
Misdemeanors" reflected her background as a lawyer and
was fairly scholarly, considering what came after it.
But once her lethally blond franchise became part of
public consciousness, or at least the lower stem of it
that feeds off cable talk, she quickly learned that
hyperbole is best sold by the ton.

She has since suggested wistfully that Timothy McVeigh
should have parked his truck in front of The New York
Times, joked that a Supreme Court justice should be
poisoned, and said that America should invade Muslim
countries and kill their leaders. And she recently
admitted that she is "no big fan" of the First
Amendment that allowed her to say all of that.

"She is so smart that none of it is by accident," said
Adrian Zackheim, the publisher of Portfolio, a
business imprint, and of Sentinel, a conservative
political imprint. "She knows that a few things she
says are bound to get attention. She just probably
doesn't know which one."

But once attention, negative or otherwise, turns
toward her, she is all knuckles and know-how. When
Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton suggested that her
attack on the widows was "vicious," Ms. Coulter went
casually nuclear, saying that the senator "should talk
to her husband, who was accused of rape by Juanita

The second-stage rollout — picking a fight with
Senator Clinton is a way, as they say in politics, to
"activate the base." Only the returns will be
financial, not political.

"Every single book she has done has become an instant
best-seller," said Bob Wietrak, a vice president for
merchandising at Barnes & Noble. "Her fan base is
phenomenal and she is in the media constantly. When
she is in the media, it creates more media coverage.
And every single day, the book sells more."

You get the idea. Wagging tongue, wagging fingers and
before you know it, soon enough you have hundreds of
hits on Google News for days to come (this column
among them).

And just when things threaten to slow down, Ms.
Coulter will saw into Cindy Sheehan, who lost her son
in Iraq, describing her as "a C-list celebrity
trolling for a book deal or a reality show," or accuse
a disabled Vietnam vet she was arguing with on a talk
show of being part of the reason the United States
lost the war there. Her attacks on the maimed or the
bereft engage the thermodynamics of the media
marketplace to send her to even loftier heights.

An explosive device is now baked into every book. For
"Slander: Liberal Lies About the American Right
(333,000 in hardcover sales, according to Nielsen
Bookscan), she called Katie Couric "the affable Eva
Braun of morning TV." We all tuned in for the ensuing
cage match, in which Ms. Couric maintained both the
higher ground and the upper hand. (That interview came
to mind last week when Ms. Coulter, back on a
Couric-less "Today" program, treated Matt Lauer like a
cat toy.)

When she was pushing "Treason: Liberal Treachery From
the Cold War to the War on Terrorism," (almost 400,000
in sales), it was all about the misunderstood genius
and patriotism of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy. In "How
to Talk to a Liberal (If You Must)", she let readers
in on the playbook: "You must outrage the enemy. If
you don't leave liberals in a sputtering impotent
rage, you're not doing it right." And her sales of
301,000 for what was basically a collection of columns
seem to indicate that she has mastered the form.

"Godless," which is already doing gangbuster business
according to the folks at Barnes & Noble, suggests
that liberalism "is the doctrine that prompts
otherwise seemingly sane people to propose teaching
children how to masturbate, allowing gays to marry,
releasing murderers from prison, and teaching children
that they share a common ancestor with the earthworm."

Does she believe any of this stuff? I doubt she even
knows. When I profiled Ms. Coulter a few years ago, I
never figured out the line between her art and her
artifice. She picked at her plate of lobster ravioli
before serving up Fred Flintstone-size slabs of red
meat. For the duration of the media opportunity, she
was playful and on point, other than fibbing about her
age, because she cares deeply about the franchise.

Her sincerity is beside the point as long as people
keep taking the bait. Mrs. Clinton, who is the perfect
foil for Ms. Coulter — ambitious, allergic to irony,
loathed by the people who will line up for "Godless" —
simply added fuel to a fire that she was presumably
trying to douse. All manner of televised talkfests,
including "Today," welcome Ms. Coulter's pirate
sensibilities back aboard whenever she has something
to peddle, in part because seeing hate-speech pop out
of a blonde who knows her way around a black cocktail
dress makes for compelling viewing.

Without the total package, Ms. Coulter would be just
one more nut living in Mom's basement. You can accuse
her of cynicism all you want, but the fact that she is
one of the leading political writers of our age says
something about the rest of us.

 Ayaan Hirsi Ali


 Secrets and lies that doomed a radical liberal 

 Dark Secrets

 Muslim women have explicit God-given rights


 Dutch MP Creates Seismic Waves by Insulting Prophet Muhammad

 ‘Extremely Insulting’ Film Outrages Dutch Muslims

 Ayaan Hirsi Ali gets a boost from the Guardian 

 Van Gogh, European Purity and the ‘Muslim Problem’

 Open Letter to Ayaan Hirsi Ali

 Free lesson on Islam 

 Hirsi Ali versus Mandela

 18/05/06 Dutch forced to rethink decision on Somali-born MP – Guardian
 17/05/06 Dutch MP who attacked Islam ‘packs her bags’
 16/05/06 MP in immigration row to leave Netherlands – Guardian
 16/05/06 Dutch MP lashed by asylum storm – BBC
 15/05/06 Hirsi Ali to quit parliament and the Netherlands – Radio Netherlands
 15/05/06 MP may be deported over claims she lied to win asylum 
 24/01/06 Dutch MP defies Muslim pressure – BBC


 Ayaan Hirsi Ali – Wikipedia

 Irshad Manji

 Irshad Manji’s Flawed Vision of Islam

 The Trouble with Irshad Manji – PSR

 The Trouble with ‘The Trouble with Islam’

 Muslim reformists threaten the faith

 The trouble with Islamophobia

 Support a Muslim Lesbian this New Year

 “Not-Too-Islamic” Muslims

      SEE ALSO

 Silencing the false propaganda of Irshad Manji

 Muslim author takes on Islam, ignites firestorm

 MPAC-UK discussion forum on Irshad Manji

 Hassan Butt

 The Jihadist that Turned 

 The new fundamentalism 

 Was CBS Duped by Radical Islamist?


 Hasssan Butt – Wikipedia

 Melanie Phillips

 Mad Mel to join BNP?  Mel’s Mission against us  Melanie Phillips on Lebanon. The empire whisperer – Andrew Brown (Observer, UK) Is the BBC lost in its own Moral Maze? Black Spider: Mad Melanie Phillips Loses It With Muslims! 

 Unbelievable Hypocrisy! Hate-filled Islamophobe stereotypes Muslims as ‘Jew-haters’

 Mike O Brien and Melanie Philips: UNSPUN 


 The demonising of Islam – Inayat Bunglawala (MCB)

 Melanie Phillips Archives – Indigo Jo Blogs

 Inayat Bunglawala responds to Melanie Phillips – MCB

 Melanie Phillips official website

 Melanie Phillips – Wikipedia

 Most Islamophobic Media Personality of the Year 2003

 Tradition or Extradition – Shaikh Abdal-Hakim Murad 

 Melanie Phillips finds a Muslim she likes – Islamophobia Watch

 Sad, Old and Out of Touch: The Identity Crisis of Islamophobes – TAM

 George Monbiot on Melanie Philips

 Yellow star lie debunked – Indigo Jo Blogs

 The MMR sceptic who just doesn’t understand science

 Robert Spencer

 Spencer’s Spin  The Spencer Spin [PDF] Karen Armstrong on Robert Spencer’s ‘The Truth about MuhammadVIDEOS Robert Spencer on Islam: REFUTED 1 of 2

 Robert Spencer on Islam: REFUTED 2 of 2


 07/12/06 Qur’an is incompatible with American way of life, says Robert Spencer 

 15/09/06 Oriana Fallaci dead, Robert Spencer inconsolable 

 16/05/06 Emails From Robert Spencer – Dean Esmay

 05/09/05 Mad Mel and Robert Spencer denounce FO memo on Qaradawi 

 30/06/05 Robert Spencer’s ongoing, unshakeable quest for self-publicity 

 06/04/05 Catholics go soft on Islam, Robert Spencer complains

 Salman Rushdie 

 Sir Salman’s long journey – Priyamvada Gopal The Satanic Verses Unexpurgated – Ahmed DeedatNEWS
 02/07/07 Salman Rushdie ‘to divorce’ again 
 28/06/07 Just ignore Rushdie’s knighthood
 24/06/07 Rushdie honour breaks UN code, says Pakistan
 22/06/07 Bhutto condemns Rushdie attack
 20/06/07 Rushdie furore stuns honours committee
 20/06/07 Iran and Pakistan call for explanation of Rushdie’s knighthood 
 19/06/07 Rushdie knighthood rekindles 18-year-old controversy
 19/06/07 Pakistan joins condemnation of Rushdie’s honour 
 26/09/06 Salman Rushdie ‘feels sorry’ for Pope 

 Tawfik Hamid

 05/04/07 Trouble with Islam – Rebuttal 18/03/07 Letters to Free Press and Detroit News about Tawfik Hamid  14/03/07 Talk on Islam under fire 

 03/02/06 Tawfiq Hamid, “Islamic Reformer” Who Hates Islam

 Theodore Dalrymple (Anthony Daniels)

 When an Argument Breaks Down Most Islamophobic article of the Year?

 Dalrymple: Asian youths and “white sluts”


 Curtis Bowman blogs on Theodore Dalrymple


 A Nobel for Islamophobia? Edward W. Said slammed the views on Islam expressed by Bernard Lewis and V. S. Naipaul

 The Not-so-noble side of Nobel

 17/04/04 Naipaul’s Rage Against Islam: A Reassessment
 20/03/04 Does VS Naipaul Fail to Recognize Islam’s contribution to India?
 05/04/02 Naipaul, Islam and Gujarat riots
 26/02/02 A Convert’s Complaint: Analyzing Naipaul’s Views on Islam
 30/01/02 Naipaul’s leap into Hindutva
 04/10/01 VS Naipaul launches attack on Islam


 Critique: Beyond Belief – G. Marudhan

 Eqbal Ahmad on Beyod Belief by V.S.Naipaul

 Wafa Sultan

 WAFA SULTAN: Reformist or opportunist?

 Dr. Wafa Sultan: A Lost Opportunity 

 [PDF] Transcript Translation: al-Jazeera – The Opposite Direction (26/02/2006)

 Is Wafa Sultan a Hero(Heroine)?

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 Islam’s Ann Coulter


 Muslim R.A.H. Profile #1: Wafa Sultan – Akeel Shah Blog

 Wafa Sultan’s Interview on Israeli Radio – Akeel Shah Blog

 The Full Monty : Wafa Sultan gets served – Dr. Maxtor Blog

 Who does Wafa Sultan think she’s fooling? – Dr. Maxtor Blog

 Wafa Sultan – Wikipedia


 09/03/07 The Great Pretenders Of The “Secular Islam” Conference


 Trouble With Haters – Maniac Muslim

 Honest Interviews : Ahmed Nassef – Dr.M’s Analysis

 Honest interviews : Asra Nomani – Dr.M’s Analysis


 Trends and Flaws in Anti-Muslim Writing

 Deviants: Progressive Muslims 


Adam: The original Sin

Adam: The original Sin

One of the 3 fundamental issues that Islam and Christianity disagree about is the original sin of Adam. The Quran describes the event of the creation of Adam, his sin and its outcome in various places in the Quran. 

Adam Sins.

Adam’s sin, and its outcome is depicted in the following verse of the Quran:“O Adam dwell with your wife in the Garden and enjoy as you wish but approach not this tree or you run into harm and transgression. Then Satan whispered to them in order to reveal to them their shame that was hidden from them and he said:

‘Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest you become angels or such beings as live forever.’

And he swore to them both that he was their sincere adviser. So by deceit he brought them to their fall: when they tasted the tree their shame became manifest to them and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them:

‘Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was your avowed enemy?’ ” (Quran 7:19-22). 

Adam and Eve Repent and God Accepts.

When Adam and Eve realized that they have disobeyed God by eating the fruit they called:“They said: 
‘Our Lord we have wronged ourselves souls. If You forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers’ ” (Quran 7:23) 

And God accepts their plea:

“.. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went Astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.” (Quran 20:121-122) 

The Outcome.

Adam and Eve were instructed not to eat from a certain tree. Satan deceitfully tricked them into disobeying their Lord and as a result:“(God) said:

‘Get down (from the Garden), one of you an enemy to the other [i.e. Adam, Eve, and Satan]. On earth will be a dwelling-place for you and an enjoyment — for a short time’. He (God) said:

‘Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out [i.e. resurrected].’ “ 
(Quran 7:24-25).

Adam and Eve were ordered to leave the Garden which they where in and descend to earth where they and their children will live and die, and where Satan will also be. 

The Sin in the Bible.

The Judeo-Christian conception of the creation of Adam and Eve is narrated in detail in Genesis 2:4-3:24. God prohibited both of them from eating the fruits of the forbidden tree. The serpent seduced Eve to eat from it and Eve, in turn, seduced Adam to eat with her. When God rebuked Adam for what he did, he put all the blame on Eve:“The woman you put here with me she gave me some fruit from the tree and I ate it.” Consequently, God said to Eve:

” I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband and he will rule over you.”

To Adam He said:

“Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree …. Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life…”

In Islam (as depicted by the Quranic verses above) Adam doesn’t blame Eve for their fault. Both share the responsibility and both receive blame, equally. Furthermore, God doesn’t curse Eve for her mistake by “increasing her pains in childbearing”.  This concept was a contributing factor for the unequal treatment of women in early Christianity (for more info follow this link ).  Most importantly, God does not curse Adam for committing a sin and that sin in not inherited by the whole world. 

Every Person is Responsible for Their Action.

This is what Islam preaches. This is what people throughout the world preach. We consider fair that no person be held accountable or responsible for someone else’s mistake. That if blame is due, then it is due on who deserves it. That if punishment is to be made, it ought to be on the one who wronged. We consider that to be fair.The Quran states:

“That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another. And that man can have nothing but what he does (of good and bad). And that his deeds will be seen, Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense [fair] ” (Quran 53:38-41)

The Quranic message is: whatever it is that you do, you are alone will be held responsible for, not your brother, not your father, not your children. This is only fair, and God is Fair. Adam sinned, we agree. But why do his children have to bear something they took no part in? Why is a sacrifice needed to please a Most Merciful God?  A Muslim will answer there is no need for any of that.

Eve’s Fault

Eve’s Fault

The three religions agree on one basic fact: Both women and men are created by God, The Creator of the whole universe. However, disagreement starts soon after the creation of the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve. The Judaeo-Christian conception of the creation of Adam and Eve is narrated in detail in Genesis 2:4-3:24. God prohibited both of them from eating the fruits of the forbidden tree. The serpent seduced Eve to eat from it and Eve, in turn, seduced Adam to eat with her. When God rebuked Adam for what he did, he put all the blame on Eve, &quotThe woman you put here with me –she gave me some fruit from the tree and I ate it.”; Consequently, God said to Eve: “I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband and he will rule over you.” To Adam He said: “Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree …. Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life…”The Islamic conception of the first creation is found in several places in the Quran, for example:“O Adam dwell with your wife in the Garden and enjoy as you wish but approach not this tree or you run into harm and transgression. Then Satan whispered to them in order to reveal to them their shame that was hidden from them and he said: ‘Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest you become angels or such beings as live forever.’ And he swore to them both that he was their sincere adviser. So by deceit he brought them to their fall: when they tasted the tree their shame became manifest to them and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: ‘Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was your avowed enemy?’ They said: ‘Our Lord we have wronged our own souls and if You forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be lost’ ” (Quran 7:19:23).A careful look into the two accounts of the story of the Creation reveals some essential differences. The Quran, contrary to the Bible, places equal blame on both Adam and Eve for their mistake. Nowhere in the Quran can one find even the slightest hint that Eve tempted Adam to eat from the tree or even that she had eaten before him. Eve in the Quran is no temptress, no seducer, and no deceiver. Moreover, Eve is not to be blamed for the pains of childbearing. God, according to the Quran, punishes no one for another’s faults. Both Adam and Eve committed a sin and then asked God for forgiveness and He forgave them both. 
The image of Eve as temptress in the Bible has resulted in an extremely negative impact on women throughout the Judaeo-Christian tradition. All women were believed to have inherited from their mother, the Biblical Eve, both her guilt and her guile. Consequently, they were all untrustworthy, morally inferior, and wicked. Menstruation, pregnancy, and childbearing were considered the just punishment for the eternal guilt of the cursed female sex. In order to appreciate how negative the impact of the Biblical Eve was on all her female descendants we have to look at the writings of some of the most important Jews and Christians of all time. Let us start with the Old Testament and look at excerpts from what is called the Wisdom Literature in which we find: “I find more bitter than death the woman who is a snare, whose heart is a trap and whose hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but the sinner she will ensnare….while I was still searching but not finding, I found one upright man among a thousand but not one upright woman among them all”;(Ecclesiastes 7:26-28).

In another part of the Hebrew literature which is found in the Catholic Bible we read: “No wickedness comes anywhere near the wickedness of a woman…..Sin began with a woman and thanks to her we all must die”(Ecclesiasticus 25:19,24).

Jewish Rabbis listed nine curses inflicted on women as a result of the Fall: “To the woman He gave nine curses and death: the burden of the blood of menstruation and the blood of virginity; the burden of pregnancy; the burden of childbirth; the burden of bringing up the children; her head is covered as one in mourning; she pierces her ear like a permanent slave or slave girl who serves her master; she is not to be believed as a witness; and after everything–death.

To the present day, orthodox Jewish men in their daily morning prayer recite “Blessed be God King of the universe that Thou has not made me a woman.”; The women, on the other hand, thank God every morning for “making me according to Thy will. Another prayer found in many Jewish prayer books: “Praised be God that he has not created me a gentile. Praised be God that he has not created me a woman. Praised be God that he has not created me an ignoramus.

The Biblical Eve has played a far bigger role in Christianity than in Judaism. Her sin has been pivotal to the whole Christian faith because the Christian conception of the reason for the mission of Jesus Christ on Earth stems from Eve’s disobedience to God. She had sinned and then seduced Adam to follow her suit. Consequently, God expelled both of them from Heaven to Earth, which had been cursed because of them. They bequeathed their sin, which had not been forgiven by God, to all their descendants and, thus, all humans are born in sin. In order to purify human beings from their ‘original sin’, God had to sacrifice Jesus, who is considered to be the Son of God, on the cross. Therefore, Eve is responsible for her own mistake, her husband’s sin, the original sin of all humanity, and the death of the Son of God. In other words, one woman acting on her own caused the fall of humanity.5 What about her daughters? They are sinners like her and have to be treated as such. Listen to the severe tone of St. Paul in the New Testament: “A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I don’t permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner” (I Timothy 2:11-14).

St. Tertullian was even more blunt than St. Paul, while he was talking to his ‘best beloved sisters’ in the faith, he said:  “Do you not know that you are each an Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours lives in this age: the guilt must of necessity live too. You are the Devil’s gateway: You are the unsealer of the forbidden tree: You are the first deserter of the divine law: You are she who persuaded him whom the devil was not valiant enough to attack. You destroyed so easily God’s image, man. On account of your desert even the Son of God had to die.”

St. Augustine was faithful to the legacy of his predecessors, he wrote to a friend: “What is the difference whether it is in a wife or a mother, it is still Eve the temptress that we must beware of in any woman……I fail to see what use woman can be to man, if one excludes the function of bearing children.”

Centuries later, St. Thomas Aquinas still considered women as defective: “As regards the individual nature, woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active force in the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of woman comes from a defect in the active force or from some material indisposition, or even from some external influence.”

Finally, the renowned reformer Martin Luther could not see any benefit from a woman but bringing into the world as many children as possible regardless of any side effects: “If they become tired or even die, that does not matter. Let them die in childbirth, that’s why they are there”

Again and again all women are denigrated because of the image of Eve the temptress, thanks to the Genesis account. To sum up, the Judaeo-Christian conception of women has been poisoned by the belief in the sinful nature of Eve and her female offspring. If we now turn our attention to what the Quran has to say about women, we will soon realize that the Islamic conception of women is radically different from the Judaeo-Christian one. Let the Quran speak for itself:

“For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast, for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah’s praise– For them all has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward” (Quran 33:35).

“The believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil, they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His Mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise” (Quran 9:71).

“And their Lord answered them: Truly I will never cause to be lost the work of any of you, Be you a male or female, you are members one of another” (Quran 3:195).

“Whoever works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof, and whoever works a righteous deed -whether man or woman- and is a believer- such will enter the Garden of bliss” (Quran 40:40).

“Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has faith, verily to him/her we will give a new life that is good and pure, and we will bestow on such their reward according to the best of their actions” (Quran 16:97).

It is clear that the Quranic view of women is no different than that of men. They, both, are God’s creatures whose sublime goal on earth is to worship their Lord, do righteous deeds, and avoid evil and they, both, will be assessed accordingly. The Quran never mentions that the woman is the devil’s gateway or that she is a deceiver by nature. The Quran, also, never mentions that man is God’s image; all men and all women are his creatures, that is all. According to the Quran, a woman’s role on earth is not limited only to childbirth. She is required to do as many good deeds as any other man is required to do. The Quran never says that no upright women have ever existed. To the contrary, the Quran has instructed all the believers, women as well as men, to follow the example of those ideal women such as the Virgin Mary and the Pharoah’s wife:

“And Allah sets forth, As an example to those who believe, the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: ‘O my lord build for me, in nearness to you, a mansion in the Garden, and save me from Pharaoh and his doings and save me from those who do wrong.’ And Mary the daughter of Imran who guarded her chastity and We breathed into her body of Our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His revelations and was one of the devout” (Quran 66:11-13).

Prophet Adam

Prophet Adam

Ibn Kathir

Allah the Almighty revealed: Remember when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Verily, I am going to place mankind generations after generations on earth.’ They said: ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify You with praises and thanks (exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You.’ Allah said: ‘I know that which you do not know.’

Allah taught Adam all the names of everything, then He showed them to the angels and said: “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.” They (angels) said: “Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise.”

He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been hiding?”

Remember when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourself before Adam” They prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers(disobedient to Allah).”

We said: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrongdoers).”

Then the Satan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: “Get you down all with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”

Then Adam received from his Lord Words. His Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the most Merciful.

We said: “Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, and signs and revelations, etc) such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever.” (Chapter 2:30-39, Qur’an).

Almighty Allah also revealed: And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, “Prostrate to Adam”, and they prostrated, except Iblis, he refused to be those who prostrate.

Allah said: “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not postrate when I commanded you?”

Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire and him You created from clay.”

Allah said: “O Iblis get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.”

Iblis said: “Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (Day of Resurrection).”

Allah said: “You are of those allowed respite.”

Iblis said: “Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (they will not be dutiful to You).”

Allah said: “Get out from Paradise, disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely I will fill Hell with you all.”

“And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the Zalimeen (unjust and wrongdoers).”

Then Satan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts before, he said:” Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” Satan swore by Allah to them both saying: “Verily I am one of the sincere well wishers for you both.”

So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). Their Lord called out to them saying “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you, Verily Satan is an open enemy unto you?”

They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” Allah said: “Get down one of you an enemy to the other (i.e. Adam, Eve, and Satan etc). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.” He said: “therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).” (Chapter 7:11-25 Qur’an).

We imagine when Allah the Almighty decided to create Adam: He addressed His angels and told them to prostrate before him. He did not mean to ask their opinion or take their advice, for He is above that. Allah the Exalted told them that He was going to create a vicegerent on the earth who would have children and grandchildren who would corrupt the earth and shed each other’s blood. That is why the angels said to Allah the Almighty: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood!” (Chapter 2:30 Quran).

There are old traditions about the angels before the creation of Adam. According to Ibn Qatadah, it was said that the angels were informed about the creation of Adam and his progency by the jinn who lived before Adam. Abdullah Ibn Umar said that the jinn had existed for about 2000 years before Adam and then shed blood. Therefore Allah sent on them an army of angels that drove them out to the depths of the seas. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated from Ali jafar Al Baqer that the angels were informed that man would cause wickedness and shed blood on earth. It was also said that they knew that no one would be created on earth who would not be wicked and shed blood.

Whether or not these traditions are correct, the angels did understand that Allah would create a vicegerent on earth. Allah the Almighty announced that HE was going to create a human being out of clay, that HE would mold him and blow His spirit into him and then the angels should prostrate before him.

Abi Musa al Sha’arai narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “Allah created Adam from a handful of dust taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created according to the composition of the land. Therefore from mankind we have white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow, and what comes in between them.” (Sahih al Bukhari).

Ibn Masud and other companions of the Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth to said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth to get Him clay therefrom. The earth said: “I seek refuge in Allah from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me.” So Gabriel returned and did not take anything. He said: “My Lord, the land sought refuge in You and it granted.”

So Allah sent Michael for the same purpose, and the land sought refuge with Allah and it was granted. So he went back and said to Allah what Gabriel has said before him.

Then Allah sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in Allah, the angel said: “I also seek refuge with Allah from returning without carrying out His command.” So he took clay from the face of the earth and mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather he took white, red, and black clay from different places.

The Angel of Death ascended with it, Allah soaked the clay till it became sticky. Then Allah said to the angels: “Truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” (Chapter 38:71-72 Quran).

So Allah shaped Adam into a human being, but he remaineda figure of clay for 40 years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear by what they saw, and Iblis felt fear most. He used to pass by the figure of Adam, buffeting it, which would make a sound like pottery. Allah told us: “He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.”(Chapter 55:Quran).

When the time drew near to breathe the spirit into Adam, as Allah decreed, He commanded the angels: “When I breathe My spirit into him prostrate before him.” Allah breathed His spirit into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: “Say all praise belongs to Allah.” Adam repeated: “All praise belongs to Allah.” Allah said to him: “Your Lord has granted you mercy.” When the spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise. When it reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the fruits of Paradise. Allah, therefore, said: “Man is created of haste.” (Chapter 21:37 Quran). And then: The angels prostrated themselves all of them together. Except Iblis, he refused to be among the prostrators. (Ch 15:31-32 Quran).

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Allah created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him for some time until it became sticky mud, after which Allah shaped him. After that Allah left him till it became like potter’s clay. Iblis used to go past him saying ‘You have been created for a great purpose.’ After that Allah breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the spirit passed was his eye and then his nose. He sneezed. Allah said: “May your Lord have mercy upon you, O Adam! Go to those angels and see what they would say.’ So Adam went and greeted them. they replied saying: “Peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah.” Allah said: “O Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring.” (Sahih al Bukhari).

Allah the Almighty revealed: Remember when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam’s loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves saying: “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes! We testify.” lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection. “Verily we have been unaware of this.” Or lest you should say: “It was only our father aforetime who took others pas partners in worship along with Allah and we were merely their descendants after them; will you then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced al batil (polytheism) and committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others besides Allah?”

Thus do We explain the Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations etc) in detail so that they may turn unto the truth. (Ch 7:172-174 Quran).

Adam’s progeny declared: “Our Lord, we bear witness that You are our Lord; we have no other Lord but Allah. Allah raised their father Adam, and he looked at them and saw those of them who were rich and those who were poor, and those who had good forms and those who did not. Adam said: “O Allah! I wish You to make Your servants equal.” Allah replied “I love being thanked.” Adam saw among the prophets like lamps among his progeny.

Almighty Allah declared: Remember when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (o Muhammad), and from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus son of Mary. We took from them a strong covenant. (Ch 33:7 Quran).

In another verse Allah the Exalted commanded: “So set you (O Muhammad) your face towards the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism Hanifan (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah’s Fitrah (Allah’s Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in khalqillah (the Religion of Allah–Islamic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most men know not.” (Ch 30:30 Quran).

Another version of the story relates that Allah took a handful of the dust of the earth and mixed into it the colors, white, black, yellow and red. That is the reason why men are born different colors. When Allah mixed the dust with water, it turned into potter’s clay that makes a sound. It was fermented and had a smell. Iblis passed by, wondering what was going to be made of that clay. From the clay Allah created Adam. he molded his form with His own hands and blew His spirit into him. Adam’s body quivered as life was imbued into it. Verily His Command, when He intends a thing is only that He says to it, “BE!” and it is! (Ch 37:82 Quran).

Allah the Almighty declared: Verily the likeness of Jesus, in Allah’s Sight is the likeness of Adam, He created him from the dust then He said to him. “Be!” –and he was. (Ch 3:59 Quran).

Adam opened his eyes and saw all the angels prostrating before him except one being who was standing at a distance Adam did not know what kind of creature it was that did not prostrate before him nor did he know its name. Iblis was standing with the angels so as to be included in the command given to them but he was not one of them. He was a jinn, and as such he was supposed to be inferior to the angels. What is clear is that this prostration was to show respect and did not mean that the angels were worshipping Adam. Prostrating in worship is done only for ALLAH.

Almighty Allah recounted the story of Iblis’s refusal to prostate before Adam: Remember when your Lord said to the angels, “I am going to create a man (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. So when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him then fall you down prostrating yourselves unto him.” SO the angels prostrated themselves all of them together, except Iblis, he refused to be among the prostrators. Allah said: “O Iblis! What is your reason for not being among the prostrators?” Iblis said: “I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.” Allah said: “Then get out from here for verily you are Rajim (an outcast or cursed one). Verily the curse shall be upon you till Day of Recompense (Day of Resurrection). (Ch 15:28-35 Quran).

In another surah Almighty Allah recounted it thus: Surely We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, “Prostrate to Adam and they prostrated except Iblis he refused to be of those who prostrate.

Allah said: “What prevented you Iblis that you did not prostrate when I commanded you?” Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire and him You created from clay.” Allah said: “Get down from this Paradise, it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.” Iblis said: Allow me respite till the Day of Resurrection).” Allah said: “You are of those allowed respite.” (Ch 7:11-15 Quran).

Ibn Jarir reported that Muhammad Ibn sirin said that the first one to reach a conclusion by reasoning was Iblis and that the sun and moon were not worshiped except through this method.

This means that Iblis tried to compare himself to Adam. He believed that he was more honorable than Adam. Therefore he abstained from prostrating even though Allah had commanded him to do so, just as He had commanded the angels. If an analogy is made we see that Iblis is vain. For indeed clay is better than fire because in it can be found the qualities of calmness, clemency, perseverance and growth; whereas in fire can be found heedlessness, insignificance, haste, and incineration.

Iblis tried in vain to justify his refusal: “Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?” Iblis said: “See? those whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!” (Ch 17:62 Quran).

Adam was following what was happening around him and had feelings of love, awe, and astonishment. Deep love of Allah,Who had created and glorified him and Who had made His angels prostrate before him. Awe of the Creator’s wrath when He excluded Iblis from His mercy. Adam was surprised by this creature, Iblis who abhorred hiwithout even knowing him and who imagined himself better than Adam without having proved that he was worthier. What a strange creature Iblis was, and how strange was his excuse for not prostrating!

He imagined that fire is better than clay, but how did he get such an idea? Such knowledge is exclusive to Allah Who fire and clay and Who knows which is the better of the two.

From the dialogue Adam realized that Iblis was a creature characterized by cunning and ingratitude. He then knew that Iblis was his eternal enemy. He was greatly astonished at Iblis’s audacity and Allah’s tolerance. Immediately after his creation Adam witnessed the large amount of freedom that Allah gives to His commissioned creatures.

Allah knew that Iblis was not going to obey Him in prostrating before Adam. Allah could have totally annihilated him or turned him into a handful of dust or stifled the refusal in his mouth. Yet, Allah gives His commissioned creatures absolute freedom even to the extent that they can refuse Allah the Almighty’s commands. He grants them the freedom of denial, disobedience, and even disagreement with Him.

His kingdom will not diminish if the disbelievers do not believe in Him nor will it be extended if many people believe in Him. On the contrary, the disbelievers will lose, and the believers will gain but Allah is above all of that.

There were many traditions about Iblis at the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that Iblis had been the head of the angels in the worldly heavens. Ibn Abbas said in one narration that his name had been Azazil and in another narration he said it had been Al Harith. Ibn Abbas also said that Iblis was a jinn and that they had once been the keepers of Paradise, with Iblis the most honorable and the most learned and the most pious of them. Another tradition says that he had been one of the famous four possessors of wings (angels), before Allah transformed him into the accursed Satan.

Allah Almighty recounts Iblis’s disobedience in another surah: Remember when your Lord said to the angels: “Truly I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” So the angels prostrated themselves all of them; except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the disbelievers.

Allah said: “The truth is, and the truth I say, that I will fill Hell with you and those of them (mankind) that follow you together.” (Ch 38:71-85 Quran).

After this lesson about freedom Adam learned another lesson, one about knowledge. Adam realized that Iblis was the symbol of evil in the universe and that the angels were the symbol of good. However he did not yet know anything about himself. Then Allah made him perceive his true identity and the reason for his creation, and the secret of his glorification.

Allah the Exalted said: He taught Adam all the names of everything. (Ch 2:31 Quran).

Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names; that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, etc Allah implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret of his glorification.

After Adam had learned the names of all things, along with their properties and uses, Allah presented them to the angels and said: “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.” (Ch 2:31 Quran) the angels admitted their inability: “Glory be to You, we have knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily it is You the All Knower, the All Wise.” (Ch 2:32)

Allah Almighty then turned to Adam: “O Adam! Inform them of their names, ” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been hiding?” (Ch 2:33).

Allah wanted the angels to know that He knew of their astonishment when He had told them about the creation of Adam and that He also knew of their confusion which they had not revealed, as well as what Iblis had concealed of his disobedience and ingratitude.

The angels realized that Adam was the creature who knew what they did not know and that his capacity to learn was his noblest quality. His knowledge included knowledge of the Creator which we call faith or Islam, as well as the knowledge he would need to inhabit and master the earth. All kinds of worldly knowledge which are included in this.

Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshipping Almighty Allah. Therefore Adam, felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful tender eyes.

The angels asked him her name He replied: “Eve (Hawa).” (means living things). They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me and I am a living being.”

Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She said :”So that you could find tranquility in me.” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve” They asked “Why was she so named?” He replied, ” Because she was created from something living.”

Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn Abbas related that Eve was created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping and after awhile she was clothed with flesh. that is why Allah the Exalted said: O Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from Him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. (Ch 4:1) Allah also said: It is he Who has created you from a single person (Adam) and then He created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. (Ch 7:189).

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “O Muslims! I advise you to be gentle with women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part. If you try to straighten it, it will break and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women.” (Sahih Bukhari).

Allah commanded Adam to dwell in Paradise: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong doers).(Ch 2:35)

The location of this Paradise is unknown to us. The Quran did not reveal it, and the commentators had five different opinions. Some said that it was the paradise of our refuge and that its place was heaven. Others regreted that statement because if it was the paradise of refuge Iblis would have been forbidden admission and disobedience would have been forbidden as well. Still others said that it was another paradise that was created by Allah for Adam and Eve. A fourth group said it was a paradise on the earth located in a high place. Another group of commentators accept what was in the Quran without questioning where this paradise was located. We agree with this last opinion as the lesson we learn from its location is immaterial compared to the lesson we leafrom the events that took place there.

Adam and eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree, that might have been the Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them they were give abode in Paradise. “But come not near this tree or you both will be of the wrong doers.” (Ch 2:35)

Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was however a human being and man tends to forget. His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam’s humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: “Shall I guide you to thTree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?” He said to them: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” He (Satan) swore by Allah to them both saying: “Verily I am one of the sincere well wishers for you both.” (Ch 7:20-21)

Adam asked himself: “What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality.” His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise.”

Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then one day they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree.

Allah Almighty told us: “So he (Satan) misled them with deception.” (Ch 7:22) Allah said: “Thus did Adam disobey his Lord so he went astray.” (Ch 20:121).

According to the old Testament, Eve was tempted by the serpent to eat of the forbidden tree. She ate because of the words of the serpent and fed Adam some of it. At that moment, their eyes were opened to the fact that they were naked, and they took the leaves of the fig tree to cover themselves. Wahb Ibn Munabah said that their clothing (before their sin) was made of light on the private parts of both of them.

This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception. Allah the Almighty revealed: O Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise stripping them of their rainments; to show them their private parts. Verily he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the devils (protectors and helpers) for those who believe not.” (Ch 7:27)

Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he as filled with pain, sadness and shame. The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves.

Allah the Almighty addressed him: “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” Allah said; “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (Adam, Eve, and Satan etc). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).” (7:22-25).

Again there are old stories about these events. Al Hafez Ibn Asaker narrated that Allah commanded two angels to remove Adam from His holy proximity. So Gabriel stripped him of the crown on his head, and Michael took the diadem from his forehead. Adam thought that his punishment had been hastened and bowed down crying; “Forgiveness! Forgiveness!” so Allah asked: “Are you running away from Me?” Adam replied, “No, my Lord, but I am shy of You.”

Abdul Rahman Ibn Amru AL Awza iy said that Adam spent 100 years in Paradise. In another narration it was said he spent 60 years. Ibn Asaker reported that Adam wept for 60 years for his loss of Paradise and 70 years for his mistake, and he wept for another 70 years when his son was killed.

They left Paradise and descended upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their repentance because it was sincere and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment.

Allah the Almighty recounted this third lesson Adam learned in Paradise: Indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm will power. Remember when We said to the angels “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.” They prostrated (all) except Iblis, who refused. then We said: “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. so let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed in misery. Verily, you have (a promise from Us) that you will never be hungry therein nor naked. And you will suffer not from thrist therein nor from the sun’s heat.”


then Satan whispered to him, saying “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?” Then they both ate of that tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness and gave him guidance.

Allah said: “Get you down (upon the earth), both of you, together from Paradise, some of you are an enemy to some others. THen if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (neither believes in this Quran nor acts on its orders etc). Verily, for him is a life of hardship and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.”

He will say: “O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight before.” Allah will said: “like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc). came unto you, but you disregarded them (you left them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected in the Hellfire, away from Allah’s Mercy.)”

And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds (commits the great sins and disobeys his Lord (allah) and believes not in His Messengers, and His revealed Books, like this Quran etc), and believes not in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc). of his Lord, and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting. (Ch 20:115-127)

Some people believe that the reason why mankind does not dwell in Paradise is that Adam was disobedient and that if it had not been for this sin, we could have been there all along. These are naive fictions because when Allah wanted to create Adam, He said to the angels, “I shall make a vicegerent on the earth.” He did not say, “I shall make a vicegerent in Paradise.”

Adam’s descent on earth, then, was not due to degradation but rather it was dignified descent. Allah knew that Adam and Eve would eat of the tree and descend to earth. He knew that Satan would rape their innocence. That experience was essential for their life on earth; it was a cornerstone of their vicegerency. It was meant to teach Adam, Eve, and their progeny that it was Satan who had caused them to be expelled from Paradise and that the road to Paradise can only be reached by obedience to Allah and enmity to Satan.

Could it be said that Adam and the rest of mankind were predestined to sin and to be expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth? In fact, this fiction is as naive as the first one.

Adam complete free will, and he bore the consequences of his deed. He disobeyed by eating of the forbidden tree, so Allah dismissed him from Paradise. His disobedience does not negate his freedom. On the contrary it is a consequence of it.

The truth of the matter is that Allah knew what was going to happen, as He always know the outcome of events before they take place. However Allah does not force things to happen. He grants free will to His human creatures. On that He bases His supreme wisdom in populating the earth, establishing the vicegerents, and so on.

Adam understood his 3rd lesson. He knew now in a practical way that Iblis was his enemy, the cause of his losing the blessing of living in Paradise, and the cause of his distress. Adam also understood that Allah punishes disobedience and that the way of Paradise has to be through submission to the will of Allah. And he learned from Allah Almighty to ask for forgiveness.

Allah accepted Adam’s repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth as His first messenger.

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger (PBUH) said: “Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam: ‘Your sin expelled you from Paradise.’ Adam said: ‘ You are Moses whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?” Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice, “So Adam outclassed Moses.” (Sahih Bukhari).

Umar Ibn Al Khattab also narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Moses (PBUH) said: ‘My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?” so Allah made him see Adam and he said to him: “Are you Adam?” Adam said: “yes.” And he said “Were you the one in Whom Allah breathed His spirit and before whom He bowed His angels and to whom He taught the names of all things?” Adam answered: “yes.” so Moses said: “What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise.?”

Adam said: “Who are you?” Moses said: I am Moses.” Adam said: “So you are Moses the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?” Moses answered “yes.” Adam said: “Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?” So Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice. “Adam outclassed Moses.” (Sahih al Bukhari).

there are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: “Adam descended on land ‘Dihna’ between Mecca and taif.” AL Hassan said that Adam descended in India and Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran). This last was also reported by Ibn Hatim.

Ass’ady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone (a large black stone set into the wall of the ka’ba in Mecca. It is said to have come from Paradise) in India, and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein.

Ibn Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al Marwa ( names of two mountains in the vicinity of the sacred house in Mecca. Part of the rites of pilgrimage (hajj) includes pacing between these two hills in commemoration of H’s search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Abdul Razzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-shari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise.

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.” (al Bukhari)

Adam knew he bade farewell to peace and he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts. Above all he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance and should fear nothing while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him.

Adam grasped all of this and with the knowledge of this suffering he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allowed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate and construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.

The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their 1st children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Cain (Qabil) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Cain tilled the land while Abel raised cattle.

The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah’s plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah’s command, but Cain was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Abel’s twin sister was not as beautiful as his own.

It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between man and women. This attraction caused Cain to envy his brother Abel. He rebelled against Allah’s command by refusing to accept his father’s advice.

At first glance Cain’s rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he had both good and bad qualities. He can become greedy, covetous,possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practicing moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter. Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature.

Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel while Cain offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering.

This enraged Cain even further. Realizing that his hopes marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother. “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!”

Abel feeling sorry for his brother, replied, “It would be more proper for you, my brother to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace. Allah accepts the deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His Commands.”

Abel was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Abel did not fear his brother’s threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt, Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion.

Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother Abel said, ” My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers.”

This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Cain’s heart, nor did he show fear of Allah’s punishment. Even familial considerations were cast aside. Cain struck his brother with a stone killing him instantly. This was the 1st death and the 1st criminal act committed by man on earth.

When Abel had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Cain about Abel’s whereabouts. Cain insolently replied that he was not his brother’s keeper nor his protector. From these words his father understood that Abel was dead and Adam was filled with grief.

Meanwhile Cain did not know what to do with his brother’s corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand.

Witnessing this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. “Woe unto me!” he exclaimed. “I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother’s corpse.” Cain then buried his brother. This was also the 1st burial of man.

Allah the Almighty revealed: And (O Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam (Abel and Cain) in truth; when each offered a sacrifice to Allah, it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former; “I will surely kill you.”

the former said: “Verily Allah accepts only from those who are Al Muttaqeen (the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to let you draw my sin onyourself as well as yours then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen (polytheists, and wrongdoers).”

So the self of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers. Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted. (Ch 5:27-31).

Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masud and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) related that inter-marriage of the male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice among Adam’s children. Abel wanted to marry Cain’s sister, but Cain wanted her for himself because she was very beautiful. Adam ordered him to give her in marriage to his brother but he refused. SO Adam ordered both of them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices; Abel offered a fat lamb, he was a shepherd, while Cain offered a bundle of worst grain. fire descended and devoured Abel’s sacrifice, leaving that of Cain so he became angry and said: “I will surely kill you so that you will not marry my sister.” Abel replied, “Allah accepts from those who fear Him.”

According to Abu Ja’afar al Baqer, Adam was watching their offering and was sure that Abel’s sacrifice would be accepted. Cain complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for Abel and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Abel was late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Cain to see what happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: “yours was accepted, and mine was not.” Abel replied, “Allah only accepts from the Allah-fearing.” Cain became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece of iron that was with him and thus killing him. In another version it was said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping.

Adam was utterly grief stricken by the loss of his two sons. One was dead, the other was won over by the devil. Adam prayed for his son and turned to mundane matters for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same time he was a prophet advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and of how the devil had tempted Cain to kill his brother.

Years and years passed, Adam grew old and his children spread all over the earth. Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related that when Adam’s death drew near, he appointed his son Seth to be his successor and taught him the hours of the day and night along with their appropriate acts of worship. He also foretold to him the floor that would come.

Abu Dhar narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Allah sent down 104 psalms, of which 50 were sent down to Seth.”

Abdullah Ibn Al Iman Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrated that Ubai Ibn Kab said: “When Adam’s death was near, he said to his children: “O my children, indeed I feel an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.”

So they went away searching for what Adam had requested. They met with the angels, who had with them his shroud and what he was to be embalmed with. They said to them: “O Children of Adam, what are you searching for? What do you want? Where are you going?”

They said: “Our father is sick and has an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.”

the angels said to them: “Go back, for your father is going to meet his end soon.”

So they returned (with the angels) and when Eve saw them she recognized them. She tried to hide herself behind Adam. He said to her. “Leave me alone. I came before you; do not go between me and the angels of my Lord.’ So they took his soul, embalmed and wrapped him, dug the grave and laid him in it. They prayed on him and put him in his grave, saying: ‘O Children of Adam, this is your tradition at the time of death.””

Before his death Adam reassured his children that Allah would not leave man alone on the earth, but would sent His prophets to guide them. the prophets would have different names, traits and miracles, but they would be united in one thing; the call to worship Allah alone. This was Adam’s bequest to his children. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the angels entered his room and surrounded him. When he recognized the Angel of Death among them, his heart smiled peacefully.

After Adam’s death, his soth Seth (Shiith) took over the responsibilities of prophethood, according to a hadith narrated by Abu Dhar. Abu Dhar narrated that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Allah sent down one hundred and four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seth.” (Sahih al Bukhari) When the time of his death came Seth’s son Anoush succeeded him. He in turn, was succeeded by his son Qinan, claim that Mahlabeel was the King of the Seven Regions, that he was the first one to cut down trees to build cities and large forts and that he built the cities of Babylonia. He reigned for a period of forty years. When he died his duties were taken ov er by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris (pbuh) according to the majority of the scholars.

Adam & Hawa ((peace be upon them)

Adam & Hawa ((peace be upon them)

By: Mekaeel Maknoon

This paper is based on a lecture given at the Belfast Mosque in March 1997

Science says Adam & Hawa existed…

Islam teaches people to treat ones mother and father with honour and kindness in their capacity as parents. To this end, remembering one’s parents and imploring Allah’s peace and mercy upon them are acts of honour and great respect. Such a deference is more than due to humanity’s common ancestor. However, with so much emphasis in the educational institutions on trying to prove that humankind evolved from apes, people’s knowledge and awareness of the Almighty Originator, and His great and gracious act in creating Adam and Hawa, for whom there is little regard these days, has steadily dwindled. The question to be put is not so much, “What are the names of the first man and woman”? but, “Do we really have a common ancestor?” and “How much do I know about humanity’s common ancestors, Adam and Hawa?”.

The religious and scientific answer to the first question is simply yes! On 11th January 1988, the Newsweek Magazine carried an article which stated that studies by molecular biologists of an international assortment of genes had put them on the trail of the mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA).

The studies were carried out on both black and caucasian women “with ancestors from Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia”. Despite the fact that the women “were from widely different racial and geographical backgrounds”, the geneticists “found that all had identical stretches of the mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited only from mothers and therefore not a mixture of parental genes”. This has led them from a Qur’anic and Biblical perspective back to the idea of a common ancestor: “to a single women from whom we are all descended”. The report went on to say, “most evidence so far indicates that Eve”…”was more likely a dark-haired, black skinned woman (who) lived in sub-Saharan Africa.” It is believed that our common ancestor – African Eve – must has lived “between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago”, and this is consistent with the findings related to Adam. This finding adds weight to the Biblical and Qur’anic statements about the existence of a Hawa (Eve), the mother of all humanity, who was not a product of an accident or chance in nature, but was created and fashioned by the Creator. Also, it is yet another piece of evidence for the authenticity of the Holy Qur’an, stating long before this discovery:

“The Revelation of this Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom… He created you (all) from a single Person:… created, (out of it) of like nature his mate… and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women” (S. 39:1,6: S: 4:1).

This passage was also telling the men of science that to progress their understanding about humanity’s common ancestor they must seek to establish Hawa’s origin and indeed humanity’s from a single individual, named Adam.

It is therefore not surprising to learn from an article in The Times on 23rd November 1995 that following a scientific study of the Y-chromosomes in a mixed- race group, Dr. Michael Hammer, a geneticist from the University of Arizona, was able to establish that all men do have a common ancestor “of African origin”, who lived less than 200,000 years ago. the article went on to say “this opposed a theory that mankind evolved in different regions of the Old World from an earlier ancestor, Homo Erectus (apes)”. What is now missing is for scientists to find the evidence which links Hawa to Adam, perhaps they will find the answer among the DNA of the bones, in particular, the lower ribs.

As regards the second question,

science has very little to offer human beings who again, must resort to the Divine revelations to acquire deeper knowledge of their common ancestor. Even the fact that Hawa (Eve) was dark-skinned was already known to scholars of Islam. E.W. Lane, in his Arabic-English Lexicon, (Book 1, Part 2, p.661), says that the name Hawa (the Arabic equivalent of Eve) signifies “a brown colour, redness inclining to blackness or a colour intermixed with the blackish red dust like the rust of iron”.

In short, she was black or, if you prefer, a dark-skinned women.

The creation of Eve: a sign and a phenomenon

The story of Adam is of universal significance not only because of what is related about him but also for what we can learn about his “mate”. The name in the Torah to Adam’s mate is Eve, there is no explanation how she acquired this name, whether from the Creator or Adam, it simply appeared at the beginning of Genesis, Chapter 4. According to Islamic Tradition, that same person is known by the Arabic name Hawa, and not Eve although again, this name does not appear anywhere in the Holy Qur’an. As regards the creation of Hawa, the information in the Torah can be summarised as follows: The LORD God said, “it is not good that man should be alone; I will make him an help meet” ….the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam… and He took one of his ribs… and made He a women… and brought her unto the man… and… Adam said,… “she shall be called woman” (Gen. 2:18,21-3)

The Holy Qur’an confirms that Hawa was indeed created out of Adam but is silent on the specific process used in her creation. It states: “O mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord Who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, his zaowja(wife/mate), and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women” (S. 4-:1).

Stephen Jay Gould, the Harvard paleontologist and essayist, say, “.. it makes us realise that all human beings, despite differences in external appearances, are really members of a single entity that’s had a very recent origin in one place. There is a kind of biological brotherhood that’s much more profound than we ever realised”.

This is the very point that Allah has related in the Holy Qur’an, which evidently Mr Gould was not aware of, or perhaps, like many others, did not want to accept until it was endorsed by science. Do they not see though, how far modern science lags behind the teachings of the Holy Qur’an?

It is evident from the above stated Qur’anic verse and Torah that Hawa’s creation is a phenomenon – she is the only women that was created from a man, but clearly not by the natural process that women would give birth. Her creation is significant, a sign and the second part of the three – part phenomenon of human creation. First was the creation of Adam, a human being who was made out of nothing, using only water and earth; second, the creation of a women (Hawa) as explained above, and third, the creation of a man – Jesus (pbuh) – out of a women without the participation of a man. All three creations are on the same footing in being unique, evident reasons for faith in Allah, and were all made possible by only the commanding word “Be” from the Almighty, attesting His power and knowledge of the secrets of the heaven and the earth, and of what is revealed and concealed (S. 3:59; 76:1-3).

In terms of religion and as a phenomenon of human creation, it is easy to understand the rank held by Hawa’s creation. An unmarried women who conceives is open to all kinds of questions about the circumstances under which she became pregnant. In contrast, there is little that can be said where a women is formed out of the sole male human being in existence – that creation is undoubtedly a great feat at which humans should marvel.

In contrast to the Torah, the Holy Qur’an does not say that Hawa was created from Adam’s rib, but says that she was made “of like nature” to him, and this fact is confirmed by reality and what is known about the human body. The biblical statement “God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam… and He took one of his ribs… and made He a women” (Gen. 2:18, 21-3), can be interpreted literally or as an allegory, the result however, in my view, is the same whichever interpretation is applied. This biblical notion, though no authenticated by the holy Qur’an, is supported by the following hadith. In the absence of any Qur’anic foundation one might argue that their authenticity is thus subject to a measure of doubt. Nevertheless, these historical sources state: Abu Hurairah (ra) relates that the Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: Treat women kindly. Woman has been created from a rib and the most crooked part of the rib is the uppermost. f you try to straighten it, you will break it and if you leave it, alone, it will remain crooked. So treat women kindly. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Another version is: A woman is like a rib; if you try and straighten it, you will break it and i you wish to draw benefit from it, you can do so despite its crookedness.

Another version is: Woman has been created from a rib and you cannot straighten her. If you wish to draw benefit from her, do so despite its crookedness. If you try to straighten her, you will break her and breaking her means divorcing her.

In Islam, women are not viewed biologically warped nor generally speaking of a criminal mentality (crooked), they are human beings of a similar nature (S. 4:1) to men and were also created “in the best of moulds” (S. 95:4). As already stated it may well be that an actual rib was take from Adam and then clothed with flesh in the formation of Hawa. This idea is Lamely acceptable in light of the following verse from the Holy Qur’an: Men we did create from quintessence (of clay), then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; the of the clot We made a (foetus) lump; then We made out of that lump bones and clothed with flesh; then We developed out if it another creature. So Blessed be Allah, the best to create. (S. 23:12-14)

This very detailed passage on human evolution is over one thousand four hundred years old, predating modern science. This passage identifies he power of the Creator in first creating Adam “from quintessance (of clay)” and then setting up the human reproductive process “in a place of rest, firmly fixed”. Looking at this process one can see three primary stages;

a) from the sperm to the formation of bone.

b) clothing the bones with flesh. and

c) perfecting the process to create “another creature”.

The reproductive process could not logically apply in every respect to Adam because, as a man, it is he who would have emitted the sperm and, judging by what is accepted to be the general nature of man’s biological structure, he did not have a womb and there was no woman – no womb (a place of rest) – to receive it. The purpose of the the first stage of the reproductive process is he forming of the bones “in a place of rest”, so if there is no womb but bones are already in existence and available, that first stage is unnecessary and, therefore, can be ignored (it is biologically inappropriate). However, the second and third stages could apply to the formation of Hawa. The ribs formed part of Adam’s bone structure so by taking a rib the All-Powerful Creator could then, “clothed [it] with flesh; then… developed out of it another creature”. There is further biblical evidence in support of the proposition that Allah has the power and does indeed create from mere bones in the following verse: The hand of the Lord was upon me (Prophet Ezekiel), and carried me out in the spirit of the Lord, and set me down in the midst of a valley which was full of bones,… lo, they were very dry. And He said unto me, Son of man, can these bones live? And I answered, O Lord God, thou knowest. Again, He said unto me, Prophesy unto these bones… So I prophesied as I was commanded: and as I prophesied there was a noise, and behold a shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone. And I beheld, lo, the sinew and the flesh came upon them, and the skin covered them above: but there was no breath in them… So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood upon their feet, an exceeding great army. (Ezek. 37:1-10)

One can quite clearly see in the above passages the final two stages in the reproduction process, the clothing of the bones at which stage they were still without life and then finally, their completion with the spirit being breathed into them so that they became living creatures, standing “upon their feet”. This notion and possibly this story is confirmed in the following Qur’anic passage: (Take) the similitude of one who passed by a Hamlet, all in ruins to its roots. He said: “Oh! How shall Allah bring it (ever) to life, after (this) its death?” But Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, the raised him up (again). He said “How long didst thou tarry (thus)?” He said: “(Perhaps) a day or part of a day”.

He said: “Nay, thou hast tarried thus ahundred years: But… look at thy donkey: and that we make of thee a sign unto the people, look further at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh.. he said: “I know that Allah hath power over all thing” (S. 2:259)

The above passages from the Old Testament and the Holy Qur’an “(shows) clearly… that Allah hath power over all things” and could, on the basis of these demonstrations of His power, most probably have created Hawa out of the rib (bone) of Adam.

Whether the rib is real or allegorical, the fact remains that in the final analysis, “another creature”, generally termed “woman”, whose creation process differed from Adam and was unique, was formed of the same essence as he for a specific Divine purpose. Thus, Hawa’s biology also composed water and clay that was moulded, “in the best of moulds” (S. 95:4), into a shape “of like nature” to Adam. Consequently, if viewed as an allegory, this notion of a “rib-created woman” should be interpreted positively using Divine purpose behind Hawa’s creation as the basis. The Torah says “God said, ‘it is not good that man should be alone; I will make for him an help meet'”, and the Holy Qur’an speaks of humanity’s “Guardian-Lord… (creating) from a single person, …of like nature, hiszaowja (wife/mate)”. It is clear from both statements that the Creators intention was to create a person who would be a zaowja(wife) “of like nature”, not surprisingly Adam, according to the Torah, named his “help meet” “woman”, because he saw in her a person who was similar in her biological essence, spiritual make-up (with her own “breath of life” – soul – from the creator) and how she functioned psychologically – having much the same ability as he to acquire knowledge, reason, articulate and exercise free will to discriminate morally. On that basis an explanation could be that the rib is symbolic of the husband’s duty to his wife and of the wife’s relationship to her husband and the dominant aspect of her character. The notion that Hawa was in reality created from a rib taken from Adam’s side also imply acceptance of the level of duty that is put upon husbands: namely to provide, maintain and protect their wives as part of their own selves (S. 4:34).

For Hawa and all women their position in marriage is also clarified by the fact hat the rib was taken from Adam’s ide. The natural position of women, as wives, is to be at their husbands’ side, to fit in with them while associating with them, and just as a man’s rib, as part of his body, is subjected to and obedient to the man’s will, so too must all “righteous women [be] devoutly (to their husbands), and guard in (the husband’s) absence what Allah would have them guard” (S. 4:34).

To be a wife and a mother is no easy task and so Hawa and all women had to be especially equipped. Women have been given a greater intensity of emotions thus enabling them to be constant as a helper: always giving, caring to a fault – with her husband and children she sometimes shows them undeserved kindness, daring to pass through the doors of pain again and again – suffering great discomfort during pregnancy and the pangs at child birth – to present as a gift to husbands their ultimate treasures of pleasure in the guise of sexual intercourse and children. Without the presence of this emotional quality in women it would be more difficult for men “to draw (the above or any other) benefit from them”, while making women more intuitive, having this capacity for greater intensity of emotions also carries with it a corresponding greater intensity of desires. Therefore, of far reaching importance to women (indeed it is relevant to all humankind) is the Qur’anic injunction to “stand out firmly for justice, as witness to Allah.. follow not the lusts (of your heart), lest ye swerve, and… ye distort (justice or decline to do justice)” (S. 4:135). Since the presence of a greater intensity of emotions and desires is necessary for the proper discharge of the women’s duty as wives and mothers, this ability has been Divinely fixed as part of their natural make-up, thus making them “crooked” – more vulnerable and therefore prone to distort or not do justice. To straighten women involves trying to force them to go against their Divine given nature, “breaking” their nature by removing from it that which is the source of “benefit” to men and which makes women good wives and mothers – ceasing to be such can only mean divorce will follow as a direct consequence. Men who require this are evil and unjust and are themselves trying to avoid their Islamic duty to “forgive and overlook and cover up their (women’s) faults)” (S. 64:14) and not “treat them with harshness… on the contrary, live with them on the footing of kindness and equity” (S. 4:19). Nevertheless, these Qur’anic injunctions are not to be abuse by women who se their emotional nature as an excuse for wrong-doings. Like men, women are also capable of being disciplined, knowledgeable and just, so it is perfectly just and proper that husbands, while keeping in mind their wives’ emotional make-up, should encourage them to strive for their own level of excellence.

I therefore have no difficulty in accepting that the idea of a “rib-created women” has both a physical and spiritual signification. Physical because Hawa could most probably have been created from a bone taken from Adam, and spiritual because despite her emotional make-up, like him, she and every other women are also capable of being disciplined and submissive to Allah (SWT).

Mekaeel Maknoon

Islam and Mohammed The Prophet

Islam and Mohammed The Prophet

By Prof. K. S. Ramakrishna Rao, Head of the Department of Philosophy,
Government College for Women University of Mysore, Mandya-571401 (Karnataka)
Re-printed from “Islam and Modern age”, Hydrabad, March 1978.


In the desert of Arabia was Mohammad born, according to Muslim historians, on April 20, 571. The name means highly praised. He is to me the greatest mind among all the sons of Arabia. He means so much more than all the poets and kings that preceded him in that impenetrable desert of red sand.

When he appeared Arabia was a desert — a nothing. Out of nothing a new world was fashioned by the mighty spirit of Mohammad — a new life, a new culture, a new civilization, a new kingdom which extended from Morocco to Indies and influenced the thought and life of three continents — Asia, Africa and Europe.

When I thought of writing on Mohammad the prophet, I was a bit hesitant because it was to write about a religion I do not profess and it is a delicate matter to do so for there are many persons professing various religions and belonging to diverse school of thought and denominations even in same religion. Though it is sometimes, claimed that religion is entirely personal yet it can not be gain-said that it has a tendency to envelop the whole universe seen as well unseen. It somehow permeates something or other our hearts, our souls, our minds their conscious as well as subconscious and unconscious levels too. The problem assumes overwhelming importance when there is a deep conviction that our past, present and future all hang by the soft delicate, tender silked cord. If we further happen to be highly sensitive, the center of gravity is very likely to be always in a state of extreme tension. Looked at from this point of view, the less said about other religion the better. Let our religions be deeply hidden and embedded in the resistance of our innermost hearts fortified by unbroken seals on our lips.

But there is another aspect of this problem. Man lives in society. Our lives are bound with the lives of others willingly or unwillingly, directly or indirectly. We eat the food grown in the same soil, drink water, from the same the same spring and breathe the same air. Even while staunchly holding our own views, it would be helpful, if we try to adjust ourselves to our surroundings, if we also know to some extent, how the mind our neighbor moves and what the main springs of his actions are. From this angle of vision it is highly desirable that one should try to know all religions of the world, in the proper sprit, to promote mutual understanding and better appreciation of our neighborhood, immediate and remote.

Further, our thoughts are not scattered as appear to be on the surface. They have got themselves crystallized around a few nuclei in the form of great world religions and living faiths that guide and motivate the lives of millions that inhabit this earth of ours. It is our duty, in one sense if we have the ideal of ever becoming a citizen of the world before us, to make a little attempt to know the great religions and system of philosophy that have ruled mankind.

In spite of these preliminary remarks, the ground in these field of religion, where there is often a conflict between intellect and emotion is so slippery that one is constantly reminded offools that rush in where angels fear to tread. It is also not so complex from another point of view. The subject of my writing is about the tenets of a religion which is historic and its prophet who is also a historic personality. Even a hostile critic like Sir William Muir speaking about the holy Quran says that. “There is probably in the world no other book which has remained twelve centuries with so pure text.” I may also add Prophet Mohammad is also a historic personality, every event of whose life has been most carefully recorded and even the minutest details preserved intact for the posterity. His life and works are not wrapped in mystery.

My work today is further lightened because those days are fast disappearing when Islam was highly misrepresented by some of its critics for reasons political and otherwise. Prof. Bevan writes in Cambridge Medieval History, “Those account of Mohammad and Islam which were published in Europe before the beginning of 19th century are now to be regarded as literary curiosities.” My problem is to write this monograph is easier because we are now generally not fed on this kind of history and much time need be spent on pointing out our misrepresentation of Islam.

The theory of Islam and Sword for instance is not heard now frequently in any quarter worth the name. The principle of Islam that there is no compulsion in religion is well known.Gibbon, a historian of world repute says, “A pernicious tenet has been imputed to Mohammadans, the duty of extirpating all the religions by sword.” This charge based on ignorance and bigotry, says the eminent historian, is refuted by Quran, by history of Musalman conquerors and by their public and legal toleration of Christian worship. The great success of Mohammad‘s life had been effected by sheer moral force, without a stroke of sword.

But in pure self-defense, after repeated efforts of conciliation had utterly failed, circumstances dragged him into the battlefield. But the prophet of Islam changed the whole strategy of the battlefield. The total number of casualties in all the wars that took place during his lifetime when the whole Arabian Peninsula came under his banner, does not exceed a few hundreds in all. But even on the battlefield he taught the Arab barbarians to pray, to pray not individually, but in congregation to God the Almighty. During the dust and storm of warfare whenever the time for prayer came, and it comes five times a every day, the congregation prayer had not to be postponed even on the battlefield. A party had to be engaged in bowing their heads before God while other was engaged with the enemy. After finishing the prayers, the two parties had to exchange their positions. To the Arabs, who would fight for forty years on the slight provocation that a camel belonging to the guest of one tribe had strayed into the grazing land belonging to other tribe and both sides had fought till they lost 70,000 lives in all; threatening the extinction of both the tribes to such furious Arabs, the Prophet of Islam taught self-control and discipline to the extent of praying even on the battlefield. In an aged of barbarism, the Battlefield itself was humanized and strict instructions were issued not to cheat, not to break trust, not to mutilate, not to kill a child or woman or an old man, not to hew down date palm nor burn it, not to cut a fruit tree, not to molest any person engaged in worship. His own treatment with his bitterest enemies is the noblest example for his followers. At the conquest of Mecca, he stood at the zenith of his power. The city which had refused to listen to his mission, which had tortured him and his followers, which had driven him and his people into exile and which had unrelentingly persecuted and boycotted him even when he had taken refuge in a place more than 200 miles away, that city now lay at his feet.

By the laws of war he could have justly avenged all the cruelties inflicted on him and his people. But what treatment did he accord to them? Mohammad‘s heart flowed with affection and he declared, “This day, there is no REPROOF against you and you are all free.” “This day” he proclaimed, “I trample under my feet all distinctions between man and man, all hatred between man and man.”

This was one of the chief objects why he permitted war in self defense, that is to unite human beings. And when once this object was achieved, even his worst enemies were pardoned. Even those who killed his beloved uncle, Hamazah, mangled his body, ripped it open, even chewed a piece of his liver.

The principles of universal brotherhood and doctrine of the equality of mankind which he proclaimed represents one very great contribution of Mohammad to the social uplift of humanity. All great religions have preached the same doctrine but the prophet of Islam had put this theory into actual practice and its value will be fully recognized, perhaps centuries hence, when international consciousness being awakened, racial prejudices may disappear and greater brotherhood of humanity come into existence.

Miss. Sarojini Naidu speaking about this aspect of Islam says, “It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy; for in the mosque, when the minaret is sounded and the worshipers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day when the peasant and the king kneel side by side and proclaim, God alone is great.” The great poetess of India continues, “I have been struck over and over again by this indivisible unity of Islam that makes a man instinctively a brother. When you meet an Egyptian, an Algerian and Indian and a Turk in London, it matters not that Egypt is the motherland of one and India is the motherland of another.”

Mahatma Gandhi, in his inimitable style, says “Some one has said that Europeans in South Africa dread the advent Islam — Islam that civilized Spain, Islam that took the torch light to Morocco and preached to the world the Gospel of brotherhood. The Europeans of South Africa dread the Advent of Islam. They may claim equality with the white races. They may well dread it, if brotherhood is a sin. If it is equality of colored races then their dread is well founded.”

Every year, during the Haj, the world witnesses the wonderful spectacle of this international Exhibition of Islam in leveling all distinctions of race, color and rank. Not only the Europeans, the African, the Arabian, the Persian, the Indians, the Chinese all meet together in Medina as members of one divine family, but they are clad in one dress every person in two simple pieces of white seamless cloth, one piece round the loin the other piece over the shoulders, bare head without pomp or ceremony, repeating “Here am I O God; at thy command; thou art one and alone; Here am I.” Thus there remains nothing to differentiate the high from the low and every pilgrim carries home the impression of the international significance of Islam.

In the opinion of Prof. Hurgronje “the league of nations founded by prophet of Islam put the principle of international unity of human brotherhood on such Universal foundations as to show candle to other nations.” In the words of same Professor “the fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done the realization of the idea of the League of Nations.”

The prophet of Islam brought the reign of democracy in its best form. The Caliph Caliph Ali and the son in-law of the prophet, the Caliph Mansur, Abbas, the son of Caliph Mamun andmany other caliphs and kings had to appear before the judge as ordinary men in Islamic courts. Even today we all know how the black Negroes were treated by the civilized white races. Consider the state of BILAL, a Negro Slave, in the days of the prophet of Islam nearly 14 centuries ago. The office of calling Muslims to prayer was considered to be of status in the early days of Islam and it was offered to this Negro slave. After the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet ordered him to call for prayer and the Negro slave, with his black color and his thick lips, stood over the roof of the holy mosque at Mecca called the Ka’ba the most historic and the holiest mosque in the Islamic world, when some proud Arabs painfully cried loud, “Oh, this black Negro Slave, woe be to him. He stands on the roof of holy Ka’ba to call for prayer.” At that moment, the prophet announced to the world, this verse of theholy QURAN for the first time.

“O mankind, surely we have created you, families and tribes, so you may know one another.
Surely, the most honorable of you with God is MOST RIGHTEOUS AMONG you.
Surely, God is Knowing, Aware.”

And these words of the holy Quran created such a mighty transformation that the Caliph of Islam, the purest of Arabs by birth, offered their daughter in marriage to this Negro Slave, and whenever, the second Caliph of Islam, known to history as Umar the great, the commander of faithful, saw this Negro slave, he immediately stood in reverence and welcomed him by“Here come our master; Here come our lord.” What a tremendous change was brought by Quran in the Arabs, the proudest people at that time on the earth. This is the reason why Goethe, the greatest of German poets, speaking about the Holy Quran declared that, “This book will go on exercising through all ages a most potent influence.” This is also the reason why George Bernard Shaw says, “If any religion has a chance or ruling over England, say, Europe, within the next 100 years, it is Islam”.

It is this same democratic spirit of Islam that emancipated women from the bondage of man. Sir Charles Edward Archibald Hamilton says “Islam teaches the inherent sinlessness of man. It teaches that man and woman and woman have come from the same essence, posses the same soul and have been equipped with equal capabilities for intellectual, spiritual and moral attainments.”

The Arabs had a very strong tradition that one who can smite with the spear and can wield the sword would inherit. But Islam came as the defender of the weaker sex and entitled women to share the inheritance of their parents. It gave women, centuries ago right of owning property, yet it was only 12 centuries later , in 1881, that England, supposed to be the cradle of democracy adopted this institution of Islam and the act was called “the married woman act”, but centuries earlier, the Prophet of Islam had proclaimed that “Woman are twin halves of men. The rights of women are sacred. See that women maintained rights granted to them.”

Islam is not directly concerned with political and economic systems, but indirectly and in so far as political and economic affairs influence man’s conduct, it does lay down some very important principles to govern economic life. According to Prof. Massignon, it maintains the balance between exaggerated opposites and has always in view the building of character which is the basis of civilization. This is secured by its law of inheritance, by an organized system of charity known as Zakat, and by regarding as illegal all anti-social practices in the economic field like monopoly, usury, securing of predetermined unearned income and increments, cornering markets, creating monopolies, creating an artificial scarcity of any commodity in order to force the prices to rise. Gambling is illegal. Contribution to schools, to places of worship, hospitals, digging of wells, opening of orphanages are highest acts of virtue. Orphanages have sprung for the first time, it is said, under the teaching of the prophet of Islam. The world owes its orphanages to this prophet born an orphan. “Good all this” says Carlyle about Mohammad“The natural voice of humanity, of pity and equity, dwelling in the heart of this wild son of nature, speaks.”

A historian once said a great man should be judged by three tests: Was he found to be of true metel by his contemporaries ? Was he great enough to raise above the standards of his age ? Did he leave anything as permanent legacy to the world at large ? This list may be further extended but all these three tests of greatness are eminently satisfied to the highest degree in case of prophet Mohammad. Some illustrations of the last two have already been mentioned.

The first is: Was the Prophet of Islam found to be of true metel by his contemporaries?

Historical records show that all the contemporaries of Mohammad both friends foes, acknowledged the sterling qualities, the spotless honesty, the noble virtues, the absolute sincerity and every trustworthiness of the apostle of Islam in all walks of life and in every sphere of human activity. Even the Jews and those who did not believe in his message, adopted him as the arbiter in their personal disputes by virtue of his perfect impartiality. Even those who did not believe in his message were forced to say “O Mohammad, we do not call you a liar, but we deny him who has given you a book and inspired you with a message.” They thought he was one possessed. They tried violence to cure him. But the best of them saw that a new light had dawned on him and they hastened him to seek the enlightenment. It is a notable feature in the history of prophet of Islam that his nearest relation, his beloved cousin and his bosom friends, who know him most intimately, were not thoroughly imbued with the truth of his mission and were convinced of the genuineness of his divine inspiration. If these men and women, noble, intelligent, educated and intimately acquainted with his private life had perceived the slightest signs of deception, fraud, earthliness, or lack of faith in him,Mohammad‘s moral hope of regeneration, spiritual awakening, and social reform would all have been foredoomed to a failure and whole edifice would have crumbled to pieces in a moment. On the contrary, we find that devotion of his followers was such that he was voluntarily acknowledged as dictator of their lives. They braved for him persecutions and danger; they trusted, obeyed and honored him even in the most excruciating torture and severest mental agony caused by excommunication even unto death. Would this have been so, had they noticed the slightest backsliding in their master?

Read the history of the early converts to Islam, and every heart would melt at the sight of the brutal treatment of innocent Muslim men and women.

Sumayya, an innocent women, is cruelly torn into pieces with spears. An example is made of “Yassir whose legs are tied to two camels and the beast were are driven in opposite directions”, Khabbab bin Arth is made lie down on the bed of burning coal with the brutal legs of their merciless tyrant on his breast so that he may not move and this makes even the fat beneath his skin melt. “Khabban bin Adi is put to death in a cruel manner by mutilation and cutting off his flesh piece-meal.” In the midst of his tortures, being asked weather he did not wish Mohammad in his place while he was in his house with his family, the sufferer cried out that he was gladly prepared to sacrifice himself his family and children and why was it that these sons and daughters of Islam not only surrendered to their prophet their allegiance but also made a gift of their hearts and souls to their master? Is not the intense faith and conviction on part of immediate followers of Mohammad, the noblest testimony to his sincerity and to his utter self-absorption in his appointed task?

And these men were not of low station or inferior mental caliber. Around him in quite early days, gathered what was best and noblest in Mecca, its flower and cream, men of position, rank, wealth and culture, and from his own kith and kin, those who knew all about his life. All the first four Caliphs, with their towering personalities, were converts of this period.

The Encyclopedia Brittanica says that “Mohammad is the most successful of all Prophets and religious personalities”.

But the success was not the result of mere accident. It was not a hit of fortune. It was a recognition of fact that he was found to be true metal by his contemporaries. It was the result of his admirable and all compelling personality.

The personality of Mohammad! It is most difficult to get into the truth of it. Only a glimpse of it I can catch. What a dramatic succession of picturesque scenes. There is Mohammad the Prophet, there is Mohammad the General; Mohammad the King; Mohammad the Warrior; Mohammad the Businessman; Mohammad the Preacher; Mohammad the Philosopher; Mohammad the Statesman; Mohammad the Orator; Mohammad the reformer; Mohammad the Refuge of orphans; Mohammad the Protector of slaves; Mohammad the Emancipator of women; Mohammad the Law-giver; Mohammad the Judge; Mohammad the Saint.

And in all these magnificent roles, in all these departments of human activities, he is like, a hero..

Orphanhood is extreme of helplessness and his life upon this earth began with it; Kingship is the height of the material power and it ended with it. From an orphan boy to a persecuted refugee and then to an overlord, spiritual as well as temporal, of a whole nation and Arbiter of its destinies, with all its trials and temptations, with all its vicissitudes and changes, its lights and shades, its up and downs, its terror and splendor, he has stood the fire of the world and came out unscathed to serve as a model in every face of life. His achievements are not limited to one aspect of life, but cover the whole field of human conditions.

If for instance, greatness consist in the purification of a nation, steeped in barbarism and immersed in absolute moral darkness, that dynamic personality who has transformed, refined and uplifted an entire nation, sunk low as the Arabs were, and made them the torch-bearer of civilization and learning, has every claim to greatness. If greatness lies in unifying the discordant elements of society by ties of brotherhood and charity, the prophet of the desert has got every title to this distinction. If greatness consists in reforming those warped in degrading and blind superstition and pernicious practices of every kind, the prophet of Islam has wiped out superstitions and irrational fear from the hearts of millions. If it lies in displaying high morals,Mohammad has been admitted by friend and foe as Al Amin, or the faithful. If a conqueror is a great man, here is a person who rose from helpless orphan and an humble creature to be the ruler of Arabia, the equal to Chosroes and Caesars, one who founded great empire that has survived all these 14 centuries. If the devotion that a leader commands is the criterion of greatness, the prophet’s name even today exerts a magic charm over millions of souls, spread all over the world.

He had not studied philosophy in the school of Athens of Rome, Persia, India, or China. Yet, He could proclaim the highest truths of eternal value to mankind. Illiterate himself, he could yet speak with an eloquence and fervor which moved men to tears, to tears of ecstasy. Born an orphan blessed with no worldly goods, he was loved by all. He had studied at no military academy; yet he could organize his forces against tremendous odds and gained victories through the moral forces which he marshaled. Gifted men with genius for preaching are rare. Descartes included the perfect preacher among the rarest kind in the world. Hitler in his Mein Kamp has expressed a similar view. He says “A great theorist is seldom a great leader. An Agitator is more likely to posses these qualities. He will always be a great leader. For leadership means ability to move masses of men. The talents to produce ideas has nothing in common with capacity for leadership.” “But”, he says, “The Union of theorists, organizer and leader in one man, is the rarest phenomenon on this earth; Therein consists greatness.”

In the person of the Prophet of Islam the world has seen this rarest phenomenon walking on the earth, walking in flesh and blood.

And more wonderful still is what the reverend Bosworth Smith remarks, “Head of the state as well as the Church, he was Caesar and Pope in one; but, he was pope without the pope’s claims, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar, without an standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue. If ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by a right divine It was Mohammad, for he had all the power without instruments and without its support. He cared not for dressing of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life.”

After the fall of Mecca, more than one million square miles of land lay at his feet, Lord of Arabia, he mended his own shoes and coarse woolen garments, milked the goats, swept the hearth, kindled the fire and attended the other menial offices of the family. The entire town of Medina where he lived grew wealthy in the later days of his life. Everywhere there was gold and silver in plenty and yet in those days of prosperity many weeks would elapse without a fire being kindled in the hearth of the king of Arabia, His food being dates and water. His family would go hungry many nights successively because they could not get anything to eat in the evening. He slept on no soften bed but on a palm mat, after a long busy day to spend most of his night in prayer, often bursting with tears before his creator to grant him strength to discharge his duties. As the reports go, his voice would get choked with weeping and it would appear as if a cooking pot was on fire and boiling had commenced. On the very day of his death his only assets were few coins a part of which went to satisfy a debt and rest was given to a needy person who came to his house for charity. The clothes in which he breathed his last had many patches. The house from where light had spread to the world was in darkness because there was no oil in the lamp.

Circumstances changed, but the prophet of God did not. In victory or in defeat, in power or in adversity, in affluence or in indigence, he is the same man, disclosed the same character. Like all the ways and laws of God, Prophets of God are unchangeable.

An honest man, as the saying goes, is the noblest work of God, Mohammad was more than honest. He was human to the marrow of his bones. Human sympathy, human love was the music of his soul. To serve man, to elevate man, to purify man, to educate man, in a word to humanize man-this was the object of his mission, the be-all and end all of his life. In thought, in word, in action he had the good of humanity as his sole inspiration, his sole guiding principle.

He was most unostentatious and selfless to the core. What were the titles he assumed? Only true servant of God and His Messenger. Servant first, and then a messenger. A Messenger and prophet like many other prophets in every part of the world, some known to you, many not known you. If one does not believe in any of these truths one ceases to be a Muslim. It is an article of faith.

“Looking at the circumstances of the time and unbounded reverence of his followers” says a western writer “the most miraculous thing about Mohammad is, that he never claimed the power of working miracles.” Miracles were performed but not to propagate his faith and were attributed entirely to God and his inscrutable ways. He would plainly say that he was a man like others. He had no treasures of earth or heaven. Nor did he claim to know the secrets of that lie in womb of future. All this was in an age when miracles were supposed to be ordinary occurrences, at the back and call of the commonest saint, when the whole atmosphere was surcharged with supernaturalism in Arabia and outside Arabia.

He turned the attention of his followers towards the study of nature and its laws, to understand them and appreciate the Glory of God. The Quran says,

“God did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in play. He did not create them all but with the truth. But most men do not know.”

The world is not illusion, nor without purpose. It has been created with the truth. The number of verses inviting close observation of nature are several times more than those that relate to prayer, fasting, pilgrimage etc. all put together. The Muslim under its influence began to observe nature closely and this give birth to the scientific spirit of the observation and experiment which was unknown to the Greeks. While the Muslim Botanist Ibn Baitar wrote on Botany after collecting plants from all parts of the world, described by Myer in his Gesch. der Botanikaa-s, a monument of industry, while Al Byruni traveled for forty years to collect mineralogical specimens, and Muslim Astronomers made some observations extending even over twelve years. Aristotle wrote on Physics without performing a single experiment, wrote on natural history, carelessly stating without taking the trouble to ascertain the most verifiable fact that men have more teeth than animal. Galen, the greatest authority on classical anatomy informed that the lower jaw consists of two bones, a statement which is accepted unchallenged for centuries till Abdul Lateef takes the trouble to examine a human skeleton. After enumerating several such instances, Robert Priffault concludes in his well known book The making of humanity“The debt of our science to the Arabs does not consist in starting discovers or revolutionary theories. Science owes a great more to Arabs culture; it owes is existence.” The same writer says “The Greeks systematized, generalized and theorized but patient ways of investigation, the accumulation of positive knowledge, the minute methods of science, detailed and prolonged observation, experimental inquiry, were altogether alien to Greek temperament. What we call science arose in Europe as result of new methods of investigation, of the method of experiment, observation, measurement, of the development of Mathematics in form unknown to the Greeks. That spirit and these methods, concludes the same author, were introduced into the European world by Arabs.”

It is the same practical character of the teaching of Prophet Mohammad that gave birth to the scientific spirit, that has also sanctified the daily labors and the so called mundane affairs. The Quran says that God has created man to worship him but the word worship has a connotation of its own. Gods worship is not confined to prayer alone, but every act that is done with the purpose of winning approval of God and is for the benefit of the humanity comes under its purview. Islam sanctifies life and all its pursuits provided they are performed with honesty, justice and pure intents. It obliterates the age-long distinction between the sacred and profane. The Quran says if you eat clean things and thank God for it, it is an act of worship. It is saying of the prophet of Islam that Morsel of food that one places in the mouth of his wife is an act of virtue to be rewarded by God. Another tradition of the Prophet says “He who is satisfying the desire of his heart will be rewarded by God provided the methods adopted are permissible.” A person was listening to him exclaimed ‘O Prophet of God, he is answering the calls of passions, is only satisfying the craving of his heart. Forthwith came the reply, “Had he adopted an awful method for the satisfaction of his urge, he would have been punished; then why should he not be rewarded for following the right course.”

This new conception of religion that it should also devote itself to the betterment of this life rather than concern itself exclusively with super mundane affairs, has led to a new orientation of moral values. Its abiding influence on the common relations of mankind in the affairs of every day life, its deep power over the masses, its regulation of their conception of rights and duty, its suitability and adaptability to the ignorant savage and the wise philosopher are characteristic features of the teaching of the Prophet of Islam.

But it should be most carefully born in mind this stress on good actions is not the sacrifice correctness of faith. While there are various school of thought, one praising faith at the expense of deeds, another exhausting various acts to the detriment of correct belief, Islam is based on correct faith and righteous actions. Means are important as the end and ends are as important as the means. It is an organic Unity. Together they live and thrive. Separate them and both decay and die. In Islam faith can not be divorced from the action. Right knowledge should be transferred into right action to produce the right results. How often the words came in Quran — Those who believe and do good thing, they alone shall enter paradise. Again and again, not less than fifty times these words are repeated as if too much stress can not be laid on them. Contemplation is encouraged but mere contemplation is not the goal. Those who believe and do nothing can not exist in Islam. These who believe and do wrong are inconceivable. Divine law is the law of effort and not of ideals. It chalks out for the men the path of eternal progress from knowledge to action and from action to satisfaction.

But what is the correct faith from which right action spontaneously proceeds resulting in complete satisfaction. Here the central doctrine of Islam is the Unity of God. There is no God but God is the pivot from which hangs the whole teaching and practice of Islam. He is unique not only as regards his divine being but also as regards his divine attributes.

As regards the attributes of God, Islam adopts here as in other things too, the law of golden mean. It avoids on the one hand, the view of God which divests the divine being of every attribute and rejects, on the other, the view which likens him to things material. The Quran says, On the one hand, there is nothing which is like him, on the other , it affirms that he is Seeing, Hearing, Knowing. He is the King who is without a stain of fault or deficiency, the mighty ship of His power floats upon the ocean of justice and equity. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful. He is the Guardian over all. Islam does not stop with this positive statement. It adds further which is its most special characteristic, the negative aspects of problem. There is also no one else who is guardian over everything. He is the meander of every breakage, and no one else is the meander of any breakage. He is the restorer of every loss and no one else is the restorer of any loss what-so-over. There is no God but one God, above any need, the maker of bodies, creator of souls, the Lord of the day of judgment, and in short, in the words of Quran, to him belong all excellent qualities.

Regarding the position of man in relation to the Universe, the Quran says:

“God has made subservient to you whatever is on the earth or in universe. You are destined to rule over the Universe.”

But in relation to God, the Quran says:

“O man God has bestowed on you excellent faculties and has created life and death to put you to test in order to see whose actions are good and who has deviated from the right path.”

In spite of free will which he enjoys, to some extent, every man is born under certain circumstances and continues to live under certain circumstances beyond his control. With regard to this God says, according to Islam, it is my will to create any man under condition that seem best to me. cosmic plans finite mortals can not fully comprehend. But I will certainly test you in prosperity as well in adversity, in health as well as in sickness, in heights as well as in depths. My ways of testing differ from man to man, from hour to hour. In adversity do not despair and do resort to unlawful means. It is but a passing phase. In prosperity do not forget God. God-gifts are given only as trusts. You are always on trial, every moment on test. In this sphere of life there is not to reason why, there is but to do and die. If you live in accordance with God; and if you die, die in the path of God. You may call it fatalism. but this type of fatalism is a condition of vigorous increasing effort, keeping you ever on the alert. Do not consider this temporal life on earth as the end of human existence. There is a life after death and it is eternal. Life after death is only a connection link, a door that opens up hidden reality of life. Every action in life however insignificant, produces a lasting effect. It is correctly recorded somehow. Some of the ways of God are known to you, but many of his ways are hidden from you. What is hidden in you and from you in this world will be unrolled and laid open before you in the next. the virtuous will enjoy the blessing of God which the eye has not seen, nor has the ear heard, nor has it entered into the hearts of men to conceive of they will march onward reaching higher and higher stages of evolution. Those who have wasted opportunity in this life shall under the inevitable law, which makes every man taste of what he has done, be subjugated to a course of treatment of the spiritual diseases which they have brought about with their own hands. Beware, it is terrible ordeal. Bodily pain is torture, you can bear somehow. Spiritual pain is hell, you will find it almost unbearable. Fight in this life itself the tendencies of the spirit prone to evil, tempting to lead you into iniquities ways. Reach the next stage when the self-accusing sprit in your conscience is awakened and the soul is anxious to attain moral excellence and revolt against disobedience. This will lead you to the final stage of the soul at rest, contented with God, finding its happiness and delight in him alone. The soul no more stumbles. The stage of struggle passes away. Truth is victorious and falsehood lays down its arms. All complexes will then be resolved. Your house will not be divided against itself. Your personality will get integrated round the central core of submission to the will of God and complete surrender to his divine purpose. All hidden energies will then be released. The soul then will have peace. God will then address you:

“O thou soul that art at rest, and restest fully contented with thy Lord return to thy Lord. He pleased with thee and thou pleased with him; So enter among my servants and enter into my paradise.”

This is the final goal for man; to become, on the, one hand, the master of the universe and on the other, to see that his soul finds rest in his Lord, that not only his Lord will be pleased with him but that he is also pleased with his Lord. Contentment, complete contentment, satisfaction, complete satisfaction, peace, complete peace. The love of God is his food at this stage and he drinks deep at the fountain of life. Sorrow and defeat do not overwhelm him and success does not find him in vain and exulting.

The western nations are only trying to become the master of the Universe. But their souls have not found peace and rest.

Thomas Carlyle, struck by this philosophy of life writes “and then also Islam-that we must submit to God; that our whole strength lies in resigned submission to Him, whatsoever he does to us, the thing he sends to us, even if death and worse than death, shall be good, shall be best; we resign ourselves to God.” The same author continues “If this be Islam, says Goethe, do we not all live in Islam?” Carlyle himself answers this question of Goethe and says “Yes, all of us that have any moral life, we all live so. This is yet the highest wisdom that heaven has revealed to our earth.”

Azmat N. Khan

Blasting The Foundations Of Atheism

Blasting The Foundations Of Atheism

Answering Richard Dawkins The God’s Delusion


nocover-blank-133x176Asalamu alaykum,
This was a book produced by Abul-Feda

In his bold and bigoted quest to ridicule the very idea of “God” and “religion”, rendering the whole thing as nothing but a big ancient “delusion”, Richard Dawkins delivers what I view to be – in fact – some of the greatest services an atheist has ever done to the cause of truth and the message of tawheed. Even an amateur philosopher like himself should realize that it takes much more to argue against the reliability of innate rationality and natural language, not to mention the mental consistency of all humans ever since the dawn of time (except for atheists in general and Darwinians in particular). Yet, he does not, thinking perhaps that this is all he needs to do to deliver his message to an audience of commoners and laypeople; and this serves me pretty well indeed.
In his book “The God Delusion”, Dawkins seeks to convince the lay reader that ever since time immemorial, humans have been “fooled” or “deluded” to see “design” where in fact there is not, and to see order and purpose where in fact there is none. He calls his ideological mission an attempt to “raise” people’s consciousness to the level where they are finally prepared to embrace such outrageous claims, both intellectually and spiritually. Thus I only find it convenient and justifiable that a book written to serve – among other pertinent ends – as a response to The God Delusion would come out under the title: Blasting the foundations of Atheism. But how does blowing Dawkins’ book serve as a means to blast all atheism? Well, I think that if one was to take some time and carefully examine every quasi argument that Dawkins puts forth in his boldly titled book, they would at least offer the reader fair insight into the “psyche” and “rationale” of an atheist, a militant one no less, who claims to have come to a near certainty that God is only a delusion! So if written with care, such an insight would suffice, in my view, to effectively destroy the foundations of all atheism. After all, atheism should be viewed as a psychological condition, and the core thesis of atheism is indeed every bit as ridiculous as what the very title of Dawkins’ book demonstrates. Thus I chose to exploit The God Delusion as a perfect instrument for my ends, and for that I am very grateful to Richard Dawkins.
Originally, I set out to refute every false or inconsistent claim that Dawkins bothered to advance in his book, and further expand on my arguments against atheistic thought along every quotation that I choose to pick. Naturally, I ended up with a volume little over a thousand pages large. Thus I was advised to split it in two volumes, the first of which would be printed separately, and would suffice to blow at least the two core chapters of Dawkins’ book out of the water: chapters three and four.
It is my pleasure to present the first of the two volumes of the book Blasting the Foundations of Atheism: its Pseudoscience and Pseudo-reason; a book which is not only addressed to sincere truth seekers worldwide but also to those who are on the verge of atheism. May Allah, the Creator of all, guide us to the one and simple truth, Amen


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Advise for a person who is new (embraced islaam) and is present amongst us – Shaykh Muhammed Saleh Al Luhaydaan

Advise for a person who is new (embraced islaam) and is present amongst us – Shaykh Muhammed Saleh Al Luhaydaan

Q.​The individual is asking for advice for a person who is new (embraced islaam) and is present amongst us. A.​The shaykh said I greet this individual; I give him a warm welcome. For this individual who has entered Islaam, it is for him to know that he has done something tremendous as the Prophet Sallaahu Alayhi wa sallam mentioned ‘There is no Jew or Christian that hears about me and dies without believing in me except that he will enter into the hell fire’. So no doubt this individual has done something tremendous. I advise this individual to be consistent in his prayers, in his five daily prayers & he should perform his prayers at their legislated times. I also advise this individual to learn that which he will use to worship Allaah, in terms of recitation of Qur’aan, in terms of supplications he should say. The most important part of the Qur’aan for him to learn at this time is Suratul Faatihaa. He should learn the proper pronunciation of the opening chapter of the Qur’aan. He should try to learn this from an individual who can teach him. Likewise he should also try his best to learn the meaning of the opening chapter of the Qur’aan… What does all Praise be to Allaah mean? What does Lord of the World mean? What does the Most Merciful mean? So that when he reads the Qur’aan he has an understanding of it. Likewise when he reads the Qur’aan, when he reads the verses he will have a reverence of Allaah azza wa ja’al. The shaykh said I ask Allaah azza wa ja’al to bless this individual and to give him success & likewise those who are present, he who is speaking (shaykh himself) and those that are listening. We ask Allaah azza wa ja’al to bring us closer to Him and to distance us from that which does not please Him. Shaykh Muhammed Saleh Al Luhaydaan (Kitaab-ut-Tawheed Class 01.12.12) Riyadh.